AI-driving digital divides and the future of African economies
9:55AM Jun 19, 2020
Good morning, good afternoon. Good evening, and welcome to the AI for Good Global Summit, or here always online. My name is Sonia from them from the International Telecommunication Union in Geneva. And I have the privilege of introducing today's webinar on the yeah driving digital device and the future of African economies. ITU is the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies. And we are also the organizer of the AI for Good Global Summit, alongside Express foundation and in partnership with 36 un sister agencies, ACM and Switzerland, our co convener. The goal of the summit is to identify practical applications of AI to advance the Sustainable Development Goals, and scale those solutions for global impact. And with our online weekly programming, we are trying to reach even more people across the globe. So please let us know where you're coming from, from which country or which city, you can use the chat function to communicate. Please make sure that you send your message to all panelists and attendees. If you wish to ask a question, please use the q&a function. THE MODERATOR will select and read out the questions to the speakers. And we are particularly counting on your participation to create a very interactive session Now I have the pleasure of introducing our moderator, dr. john Kamara, the director of machine intelligence Institute of Africa and the founder of a fear record. JOHN, welcome. Hello.
Hello, how are you? Good. Thank you. How are you, john?
Very, very well. Glad to be here from Nairobi. It's evening time here. And we're happy to join the rest of the world. So welcome, everyone, to the ICU, Africa summit. We're excited to be here today. And we are gonna jump right in because we believe that AI is definitely the future for Africa as an emerging continent, and all the economies emerging out of this economy. We have some amazing people on the panel today, I'm sure you've seen a number of the marketing materials that have gone out from the ICU and then Number of our esteemed guests. But our first keynote speaker is a person of excellence a woman who has made a lot of contribution to the development of digital technologies in South Africa. And and allow me to welcome minister Stella and Daisy Abrams from the Republic of South Africa. She is the Minister for communication and digital technologies
So we will have the mason on who will present for us the opening keynote speech for these events.
While we're waiting for the minister to join us,
from South Africa, we will like to invite our next guest.
Talk to us a little, actually, the Minister is here. Thank you very much. We are waiting for you to join us. And we're looking for a fantastic keynote speaker you talk into your vision for South Africa, the region and the continent. Thank you.
Thank you so much. I'm not
sure if he wants to go over Like
waiting for ads to connect.
We were good to go. We can you can work on waiting for you. Yes.
Thank you so much and good afternoon. Of course, I'm taking the South African time. And I just want to say good things to everyone who's listening to us today. And thank you so much for joining us in this important topic, that all nations are really trying their best to make sure that we, we do our best not only as governments but also as, as the citizens of the country. My name is Dylan Devin Abraham's as it has been introduced. I'm the minister responsible for communication and digital services in South Africa. And of course, fellow participants. The topic, as we all know, was talked to the future of work in Africa with digital divide. Of course, we're looking at the AI Unity's and challenges to say, what is it that we should do? Or what is it that we're not doing right? In order to liberate on the opportunities that are presented by the artificial intelligence. Of course, it is my pleasure to engage with your phones this afternoon. And as we fashionable to talk about building the digital economy, which requires a digital society, research has indicated that there's a lot of that we need to do in order to achieve that. As we talk about usage, that is the need that we need to do. But the advantage once more is the fact that especially in Africa, they is the mass investment that we have done for us to say we comfortable with the status quo, or really considering because our already invested a lot we are now presented with an opportunity to invest for the future, to say how Can you elaborate on the artificial intelligence technologies in order to help our countries grow their economies? As I say this, the basic thing, of course, as a person from government, is to make sure that we create an enabling environment. And the basic thing, creating an enabling environment, start with the policy. So then the need for all of us as policymakers to make sure that we develop policies, ai policies, as the different countries in Africa to say how would we then plan to work on this artificial intelligence to to resolve some of the challenges that we have, but also to enable an environment where we can build on that that you are good at, as I'm speaking from South Africa to make an example, everybody that we come from the land of gold and diamond, and of course you also have messages fans, I can leave that behind, but what people are not looking at As we have seen currently that coffee when it's heated, if I were to make an example, when when it heaters, it showed us that all the personnel that we have the unskilled labor, can one day lose a job. And that's a reality as they lose a job that translates to production levels. And if you're talking about production levels, its impacts on the economy. And therefore, as the people that are responsible for policies, how would you make sure that we do appreciate that there are technologies that can help us improve the production levels in order to turn around our economies? I made an example with mine that has we have lots of unskilled people or labor in that sector. I think you share intelligence as a key role to play. As much as most people talk about the threat that is imposed by the fourth industrial revolution technologies as a threat to jobs. One thing that you have not paid much attention on In terms of investment, and providing clear directives is that of leveraging on the new jobs that can be built, utilizing artificial intelligence. And of course, as I spoke about policy, there's been lots of news again, people talking about the ethics of the algorithms that are being used. Because it is of no value to us, as Africans. If when we look for particular information, it doesn't talk to who we are, or it's not a true reflection of what we stand for, which is what we have seen in the previous religions, whereby our story has to be tuned in a particular manner that's used the storyteller and definitely we have not been telling the stories. Now we presented within opportunity to say, just from programming level, how do you make sure that we get involved? How do you make sure that you with people and porn If that must look into the ethics of the algorithms, so that as we leverage on the usage of artificial intelligence, our people do not get to experience what they experienced in the past that have been discriminated against in the economy and in the knowledge economy that you're talking about. So that's just one component. And of course, key to the enablement that we're talking about is that that we all agree that it matters, data is the new oil, others put it like that. I prefer data is the new oxygen to cause for us to do everything. It really requires that data how we use it has an impact, whether positively or negatively to whatever that you want to do. The for once more as government. We are then faced with the challenge of ensuring that just like the EU has done, and other regions, we come up with our own data policies and data must also help create an enabling environment for innovators for small businesses and other industries to utilize them for economic aspects. So this is not something that can just be done by government alone. This is why in South Africa when President Rama pasa took a decision to establish the Presidential Commission on the fourth industrial revolution said, he said, I, you really need a group of experts, who will not be looking only at technologists, but to be looking into the entire ecosystem of human beings that people must eat, people must work, people must close, then we have minerals, as I've said, and therefore we need everything that goes with this to make sure that these experts can then meet together and provide a blueprint document to say where to South Africa and as we do that, if I forgot to say will turn out our images to say the commission is presented to the part to the president while waiting for its final adoption. But the most exciting thing I gained came when President Ramaphosa was appointed the chairperson of the AU, which gave us again, another opportunity as South Africa to see what is it that we can build on that we see that has worked not only in South Africa, but also in other states? How do we make sure that we bring all the African states together in the benefit of Africans, both in Africa and in the diaspora, utilizing the expertise that they have? As we did that, of course, the AU has its own Working Group on Artificial Intelligence. The Smart Africa grouping, again, has its own artificial intelligence working group which is chaired by yours truly. And the President made a very big announcement that made it's very happy to see as part of his legacy projects He would really like to leave a legacy whereby we he has established an Africa, a forum, whereby we bring everybody in the forum, those that matter in terms of the expertise when I say everybody expected that's required from all the member states of the EU, and therefore to make sure that he will have his own AI strategy that must help guide the different member states in ensuring that this time Africa does not miss out. I have a phrase that I like so much that I borrowed from the tongue when he really defined it to say it's a term that China takes leadership and technologists, the charge and Fastpass phrase, and I really believe that Africa were given an opportunity to really do that. And if we are to charge and such Has, it means we've got to stop being consumers of the technologies that come from somewhere. But you also have to be inventors, which is why for us, it becomes crucial to do just like outcomes as they've done in other regions to say, we identify AI as a key technology that we think we can leverage on to change the economic status and social well being of the people of the African continent. As we do that, of course, we are, again cognizant of the fact that we have poor infrastructure in terms of infrastructure, which is the crucial talents that is government you are faced with, as we saw COVID-19 hitting us and people were forced to stay out of jobs away from offices, really to fan even for those that have believed that as government we really do not have to invest much in connectivity provides people don't eat internet as you listen to some living soul. But it was proven that we can have the best bandwidth in the offices, we can have the best technologists in the offices of beautiful offices. But there may be situations or scenarios, as we've seen that you're not able to come to work. And that presented a great opportunity for us in the digital space to see now, it is people that are calling upon us to say, we see this infrastructure that we have is not sufficient. We do want to make sure that we access digital services, but we cannot because of the current infrastructure or non availability of of the infrastructure at all costs. As much as we're talking about infrastructure, there are still areas that you do not have connectivity at all. And again, we are privileged as Africa again, because we decided to build roads on the watch we have to say as we have the Brundtland Commission, what the strategy is, therefore we can employ to make sure that we partner with everyone and be able to save When I invest in connectivity, fast, switching connectivity as a basic human right is one thing that we are saying we all agree that it needs to be done. If we do agree that people can live without money COVID has shown us that people can live without internet, where they have lived with really seen where there's been
a divide and the disadvantages, when even we had to provide education, which we'll all agree is a priority of any responsible government. And people could not access that.
I'm talking about a policies that we make as government. I'm talking about strategies that we employ, but I'm talking about resources at the same time, because they go together, we may have great policies. If then money and resources are not following that, then it would mean that we're not really gonna leverage on the technologies that we have. I spoke about the impact of coverage as we have expected As in the past month, again, very clear in the health sector if I were to make an example with them, whereby we all agree that the shortage of doctors within it, because again indicates that we need about one comma 2 million doctors in Africa for us to be able to deal with a virus that we're looking at, and realities that that we do not have currency. And the people in the digital technology space, ours is to say, how do we leverage on the deployment of artificial intelligence, but what people have cell phones with themselves, people have devices with themselves? How do you make sure that they can use that in order to change their social status and access the basic services that they must access without us going to get to talk to us? Well, we're not going to find we've gone to Cuba, we've gone to other countries that were saying come help us. But there is the artificial intelligence that you all agree that it can play a major role as well. About that, again, it is very clear that as I spoke about the broadband infrastructure, there's also the issue of the energy capabilities. But it's important to balance energy investment, because it's part of the infrastructure. Because when energy is not stable once more is an impact on the quality of the connectivity that would need and therefore automatically, it's called its impact negatively on the kind of service that we must provide. We talk about devices, people must access the services through devices, once more. Africa has been a consumer of all the devices that we're talking about. And we really believe that you are presented with an opportunity that we can really come up with our own, that we are talking about bridging that gap in terms of the jobs that will be lost, but we can invest in the new opportunities that are there. And as I said, it is only Africa that has lots of people who are not connected. It is only Africa that has a high digital illiteracy rate. And for investing in the skills, investing in the infrastructure, including the devices becomes key. As I talk about infrastructure. earlier on, I mentioned the fact that we'll all agree that data is the new art, but data has to be stored, which means there's a need for us to invest in data and in data centers, and Cloud Storage. And as we do that, again, we all agree, there's a need for us to leverage on the artificial intelligence to be able to do certain things in order to create the new economies that we're talking about. When I spoke about what we have in the continent, I mentioned the bank commission. Of course, we also have the program for infrastructure development in Africa, which is also looking at bridging the interests I get and identifying, of course, the financing models for sustainable broadband deployment. This is something governments cannot do alone colleagues. This is something that requires all industries, and government, all it has to do is to create an enabling environment whereby we have to agree to a particular point. That's why I said that policymaking becomes very important. That identification of sectors that can really turn around the economy and assessing those is very important. Because if we're going to say we're calling upon the private sector, to come and invest in infrastructure, in terms of connectivity, we've got to make sure that the environment enables that, therefore, we've got to relax that and regulations. We've got to make sure that you look at a tax incentives and others in order to make sure that indeed, the environment for investment in Africa is conducive for investors to come and do it. If we are To succeed in this journey we went to party on. And of course, again, as we talked about the jobs that were losing my kids dimension, the very important thing, if I were to be specific on South Africa, again, to say wisdom tends to create about four comma 5 million new jobs if we invest in technology, and connectivity, but if you talk about the the new jobs that we're going to create, they also mentioned the fact about three comma 3 million jobs to be lost. This is one takes us to the need to say we've got to prioritize skills development, we've got to upskill our existing personnel. We've got to make sure that we change our curriculum, which in most cases has been designed for our people to just consume content and go and look for jobs. This is an economy that requires innovative and small businesses that must be given an opportunity to tempting Around people who must provide solutions. Instead of people who must come in theorize with a framework sense. If you look at the banks, they're also affected. And as I'm mentioning these I keep on saying, we see AI playing a critical role, because we're going to take all the talk about automated banks, we're going to talk about the mind, and everything. Artificial Intelligence plays a new role. And therefore, it becomes a key technology that we believe that it can change the social economic status of our people, and therefore of our countries.
Again, we've had in South Africa, the likes of Ed Khan, who recently announced that they stand to lose jobs. And of course, as people in the space we're like, they really do not have to lose jobs if they don't have to be paying those huge sums in terms of property. Apologies to those that are in property business, but they can do and the They can offer the services that they offer at the end rescale and upskill, the customer that they have for constant times for for e commerce platform, and then they still get sales people, as we have seen in other countries. So we still believe that artificial intelligence can really turn things around. If we go back again, to the impact of conflicts that
almost, if you could, me will enjoy your conversation. But before I just wanted to ask you one question, and that what is this an African government doing in the health space in terms of AI? And how is that helping to fight for COVID, similar to what we're doing here in Kenya, with the likes of AI for Good and other companies that are solving problems, the private sector.
Thank you. Thank you. Of course, in South Africa, one of the key things that we do when we're hit by the Corvette was to establish the isotope extremes We spoke to all sectors to identify themselves and get organized. And I must really commend the work that has been done by the ICT workstreams, which has provided most solutions to the health department to say, we can deploy your artificial intelligence technologies in terms of how you have in terms of track track and tracing of the people who have been tested positive, which is now half moon Watch has moved from the Department of communications to the Department of Justice. But working with the Department of science and innovation, that's one of the things and of course on top of that we do have the Center for artificial intelligence Intelligence research, which does research work and has been working closely with a department to say the Department of Health, this is how we can assist in terms of technologies. There's been lots of solutions and applications that have been provided, including blockchain technologies. I know that the teams are right now working on a platform where you get access to To free information on COVID, including the material that you need to accent and pointing you to where you can go and test and all that has been done by the current through the collaborative efforts of South African government and its own industries. And as I said, amongst those industries, it is the ice to extreme.
Thank you very much, Minister. That is absolutely fantastic. It's a pleasure to have you as a keynote opening speaker and I think a lot of the audience has learned quite a lot about what is happening is a conversation I want to pick up with you later around the health infrastructure in South Africa. If you allow me I will get in touch with you later. So we can also share more information with the rest of the world. Next is our network. Thank you very much minister. Our next presenter is Alex Otto. Alex, work for Alex's with Alliance for AI and he has been involved Education in AI, Africa for quite a while. And he's going to share with us some of his thoughts about how Africa can leapfrog using social intelligence in Alliance for development of AI, and also an alliance for collaborative work for startups and the ecosystem. Alex?
Yes, definitely. Thank you very much, john, for the introduction. And it's always an inspiration to listen to your minister. As always, I will go ahead and share my screen as I will be showing you all presentation. So I will just try to work that here for a moment.
Fantastic, so I believe you should be able to see my screen.
Great. Well, I'll start off with a story for you guys right off the air. Is 2018 and Nicholas obey known so kind of myself was sitting around the table, basking in our perceived success. And Nick from Cameroon was an applied physics PhD and data scientist crafting energy and innovation policy for the United States government and also from South Africa. She is a nuclear physicist, toned fiber optics and sobrino deploying infrastructure in our country to reduce the cost of internet. Hi bezzie A in California, where I'm calling you from was guiding was with Nvidia and guiding the top five largest companies in the entire world to deploy AI solutions that billions of people will use. This all looked exciting for humanity until we had this chilling realization that there was an insurmountable gap that was growing in the quality of life that humans live in And this was this was because of the way people are playing the technologies that we're building in that, in the near future, being wealthy won't be enough for you to escape this gap. The only way was that you'd have to increase the representation of people who look like you at the table where AI is built. As such as yet, we you probably now see a version of this reality through COVID-19. It has come to expose this gap to more people. For example, as a rich person in Nigeria, you can now simply send your kids to America for school when the school is that for my terrible similarly, you can't escape the poor health care systems in our country. I'm flying to London when you are sick. And as a rich person, this is very necessary systems like getting boots will still support you as a black person and Oddly, as a criminal, many of you wish for COVID-19 to and so all of this will go away. When I say to you that if the current application of AI continues because you don't do anything about it, this problem will last more than three decades until we are at the mercy of white and Chinese male engineers and researchers. We could not wait that day in 2018. We have to act fast. You cannot wait today. You have to act now. Oh, Chris Nelson Mandela. Since we have all South Africans in the room that I have read I have discovered the secrets that after climbing a great Hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb. Make sure to pause and enjoy the view then much on because we've freedom comes great responsibility. So to that I share that last year at this powerful global summit. There were two men represented in Africa handing out pamphlets. They are Nick Bradshaw, and john Kamara who is moderating. So after that, myself, Nick Selina Dr. Murray in America, we set out on a journey to convince our great friends at the ICU, that it was crucial for African innovators to be at this table. So the world has an opportunity to benefit from the groundbreaking work that's happening on our continent. Today, the ITU has three as agreed to have three sessions with up to 15 speakers of African descent 60% of this particular one, we help organize our women. So this is some great progress as being 500 Yes, but our voices edge ever closer, returning to the global innovation table. We'll use it to speak now. for black people and women, both for Latin Americans, for Asians, for Europeans and people in American states, we must stop our cycle of waiting for the world to change or stop waiting for governments to magically do something on their own without our support. Well, myself waiting for large global organizations to increase the representation on India staff because evidence shows that they don't have the motivation. Why stop waiting? Because for once the same technology that trends that threatens our relevance also provides us an opening to demonstrate the new path for each progression AI for basic human needs.
If I'm going to progress Yeah, are you are Kumar is no wait when he went from discussing with my Vision three years ago about finding mentors for his farm crowd is not only Nigeria, now multiplying the yields of over 25,000 farmers in that country, ending in the current number 24 spots right next to Alico dangoty, as the top disruptor list in Africa did not wait when he sets up tumbler health in Kenya to dam the atrocious costs of MRI machines by designing an AI to that on the phone, such that you could place that phone on the back of a patient. It collects sound waves from their lungs, and uses those waves to create images that medical practitioners can use to diagnose disease. You can imagine how much cheaper that is done buying an MRI that costs the same as building four hospitals in Kenya. We must not wait Well, let's talk about your villain, the digital divide. You see, the transformation is like a fast moving train from the platform, some people can stretch their legs and get on easy. Others have not been able to. They are divided from the digital world and all these opportunities. And 30 million of those people are actually in the United States of America, by the way. So once again, it's a problem that we share together as a glue, and should organize together. parts of Africa, we obviously have small percentages, who have access and ability to pick off the beam for this internet. They are very important group. But our challenge today is to come up with a plan that will beat that divide down this decade. My fellow panelists I placed your logos on this upon the chance to we'll see how you think about that. When we have our discussions, I spoke about this very topic. At the pan African conference in Egypt. Last December, I was told that Africa was too behind to talk about AI. My response was that if you look at Africa in short periods, you will find problems. But if you look at it decade to decade, you will find commendable growth growth that we can build on to design the future of our economies. Are Africans working at key positions for key organizations around the world? So organization Alliance for Africa's intelligence Alliance for AI for short, is laser focused on the future of our lives. Our approach is to tap into Africa's smartest minds around the world to get people acting on crucial matters that can't wait. experimenting and pilot Programs onto for profit bodies, governments or large organizations pick them up to scale them.
Now our key principles are as you see, hashtag one brain, hashtag love. Hashtag each one to two.
The old plan was that leaders today have a focus on consumers. They think you know, how do we find 100 billion dollars to borrow. So we provide electricity and internet so people can consume. That is important, but this is solving the equation a little backwards. Hence, it hasn't worked properly for over 20 years. It doesn't start with small steps from the people that cascade into a domino effect. I like to call it the AI revolution is not about consumers. It's about builders. Yeah, it's today. When was the time from being consumers and secrets of paid towards being builders of solution. So, there is a path to initiating your full IR domino effect wherever you are in the world. We think you should identify your builders to activate them. You should meet the learners where they are. And there's an X factor, which you will tell me about at the end of this speech. supercomputers. developers need supercomputers and enabling policy. We must select these builders, those are nations that we want to activate even if it's just five companies, I mean, China, Alibaba and Baidu, your builders need these things to succeed. There's already progress as African innovators raised over $1 million last year. Connectivity costs go way down over time. If you look at Decades decades, and mobile penetration is going up. But we are ready for the next wave. I know stripe Maya is listening because the last wave, it was started by by him and created millions of jobs, which was mobile. The next wave is indeed supercomputers. These you can think of them as very powerful laptops to a room filled with powerful machines. The world didn't have more than AI that we're all talking about it 2012 when a GPU supercomputer started getting used to do AI. So how can Africa innovators build competitive AI without much easier access to supercomputers when their counterparts around the world have this easy? You see, take I forgot the innovator two months to truly complex but important and useful AI model that will only take counterparts a few hours in San Francisco with a small supercomputer, not even a big one. There's just one supercomputer in Africa today. And it's built and managed by my good friend happy Stoli in South Africa. I was involved in the deployment of every single Nvidia GPU supercomputer in the cloud today. So my perspective is that when you are deploying your products, and people are paying for it, yes, you can do that on the cloud. But when you are learning and experimenting to build, it's crazy to use the cloud aspect that you're paying for when your competition in America have hundreds of thousands of free Cloud Credits, or even work with governments to build subpar computers. So we need to solve this build us in Africa. You could start this with a small pilot, I don't less than $100,000 for one startup hope we see five companies or $500,000 for a city or go $10 million to pilot this across four corners of the continent. I mean, we already spent $50 billion To build infrastructure as Minister shared, or we can cut out a little slice just to test this whole concept of supercomputing. We already have a group of Africans deploying these very machine. So yes, Alex.
Yeah. In the interest of time, I need you to sort of wrap up real quick.
Give me three more minutes. I will go through these. Pretty much the supercomputers for the Buddha's I important. education piece is incredibly important as well. We have to meet the learners where they are. You don't have to use the digital internet all the time. There's WhatsApp, radio, there's television. We analyze for AI are working. We've got rose Cassie Chico, over in Kenya. She's not she's a little older than 20. But she's designing what we call the distributed crowd healing future of work learning plan. Where she has a library of capabilities important to the future. Dr. America will talk more about this and my mentor and jackasses Francisco as well. And we give this away to people to use that to learn in schools. It's already been piloted in Africa leadership University in Rwanda, Africa says Academy in Ghana and in sukham, Tunisia. So, the final X Factor is really you, you have to beat the market by African solutions. Let's do away with that major news outlets propel, that says Africa our only seek as a as an advisor solution. I mean, we've COVID-19 Africans have built a number of solutions that the world's not looking at. So the domino effect as I close is about creating an environment for the sharpest innovators, running campaigns that encourage local and international purchase of their offerings, otherwise, there's no future market. Hubei in Africa to a completely new industries we get enabled, which will transform our societies to the point where you have enough welfare in human beings, who will make up the majority of your governments, a responsible government, you your future. So the very last slide here continue to be one of the sidekicks of development. And sorry, we, the grassroot people are making progress in Africa, and America, Brazil, and all the Forgotten minorities of the world. You see, we cannot fail will only succeed if you join a movement. We have space for politics, including musicians and sports players you should join and those who want to find out blueprints or skills programs. The final quote here before you continue, john, thank you. JOHN, if you let me just close with this one, right. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. said That is only when it is dark enough that you will see the stars. It's dark right now with COVID-19 lock downs. And so if you're a star employee to step out and be the star of the world we never forget. Thank you. Over to you, john.
Thank you very much, Alex. And on that note, be the star, which is an important, important vision for the continent. And I think just to echo what Alex has said, there are a number of solutions that are coming out of Africa in the AI space. And if you look at COVID-19 COVID-19 presents an opportunity for our governments to actually look inward and see what solutions that our own entrepreneurs or startups, our private sectors are building that actually help this particular pandemic and every other industry. And it also allows us to be able to buy from our own and effectively encourage our own startups to be here. to actually do be part of the solution, rather than always having to import solutions from everywhere in the world. So I do encourage the government folks who are listening here to look inwards in your countries and Tifa about this part of the chance to actually prove that they can be part of the solution, because this is why we're saying the startup ecosystem is the foundation for Artificial Intelligence and growth in Africa, according to minister, stellar earlier on. Now we're gonna move on swiftly. And we're gonna be talking to Dr. Morocco, who has been a pioneer for education, and who is also one of the key women who has influenced me a lot in regards to how you use a social intelligence to solve problems in education, and also how you look at the African ecosystem and create the process based learning rather than outcome based learning that allows us to create artificial intelligence models or artificial intelligence solutions that will help us train our own education system. So I'm gonna pass it over to Dr. Morocco. pleased to welcome her from the United State headquarters. Thank you very much.
Thank you very much, Dr. Kamara. And thanks for having me. And I think the the first two previous speakers, and let me build on what Dr. sardo kept saying that the future is now Africa cannot wait. But at the same time, we have to take learners from where they are. And my focus is on the future of AI in education in Africa. with a focus on young working population and AI in order for us to talk about the future we have to first acknowledge as the honorable minister also And notice when she was talking about our feeble investment in infrastructure and AI, we have to acknowledge where we are if we say the future is now where are we in education in Africa today. And let me acknowledge that a lot of progress has been registered, especially since the education for all movement, but we are not sitting at a comfortable launching pad. And then we have to accept and Africa has the youngest one of the youngest populations in the world. When you look at people who are between 15 to 24 years constituting about 16% of the population, but importantly, that by 2025 projections are that the 15 to 24 year olds will increase from the to 26 million. They Were in 2015. By they will double or a little bit more than double.
The second part is if you look at our z is all they account for a little over 40%. So Africa is young. But the moral of the story is that the shadow of it is that Africa's population has to be either in learning institutions, or just entering the labor market. This is where the bulk of Africa lies. This is where the future of Africa is. The future of Africa is the right way its children are in anything else like AI and ourselves can only be wise by investing well in the future, which is the youth in remarkable energy if we invest wisely on them. Now, while Africa, the best of Africa or to be in learning institutions of sub Saharan Africa in particular has very limited access to education opportunities just to quickly say almost 60% of young people are 15 to 17 years or of age are not in any form of education, institution or process. And access to higher education is about 9%. This is very low compared to other regions. If you look lower, to six to 11 year olds, who are out of school is almost one fifth of the children. This is not a good starting point from education. The quality of education is a challenge. And it manifests itself in the high proportion of both primary and secondary school teachers who are less qualified compared to their counterparts, and there are reasons for this we cannot go in depth with. The Honorable minister mentioned some of the legacies of apostate. The apostate legacy is is is in short in the in recent history, but Africa has struggled with establishing good quality education for long. We have acute shortages of teachers in Africa about 70 million, we will need 17 million new teachers by 2030 if we are to make any progress towards where the world is, and we have rampant shortage of other traditional resources. This impact on the quality is expressed in the learning outcomes globally. Yes, we have the Global Learning crisis, where nearly two thirds of 600 million school aged children are not acquiring basic competencies, but for Africa, Sub Saharan Africa is accounted for 52.7. Almost 73% of these kids who are not making the basic minimum competencies are just basic reading and numeracy before we get into digital literacy and all those things that we should be on. So that's the picture in education now looking at the participation of African youth in the labor market. At a quick glance, it looks as if Sub Saharan Africa is not doing too far compared to world average because the 2019 us labor force participation rate in Sub Saharan Africa is about 48%. And this is a that is not too far from the world average is about 53%. However, if you go below in the senses, these Young people are in poor quality work. So they are doing poor quality work and the poor environment with very little and enumeration, especially for African young women. So there's a gender dimension that employment is predominantly in the informal sector in the informal economy and the employment itself is informal. Consequently, even though it looks like we have a 48% participation,
about 15% of these employed young Africans and live in extreme poverty, they are called workers who are what they are in working poverty. And then an additional 17% is in moderate poverty. So We actually have African young people, which means they are in the lower rungs of the skills. And we know projections are all that the highest risk of losing a job and look at those people who are in the lower rungs of the skilled semi skilled to the middle level skills, particularly middle level skills, because they are, they are tasks can be quickly automated. So now, if we have this challenge, the Honorable minister spoke of policies, it means, as she spoke about AI policies, they have to be integrated with economic growth policies to create jobs for higher level skill. But because higher level skills create jobs for middle and lower level skills, it has to be integrated with education policies that emphasizes quality, relevance and resource efficiency and equity. So what is it that AI can do to take us to what a more desirable travels to Chandra give me fast before Kamara tells me so if I speak very fast, please excuse me. I think AI can enable us to open the global virtual classrooms. This is happening in high education through MOOCs. There shouldn't be any reason why it cannot happen in lower levels of education. And in order to open access, and this is desperately needed, but as the honorable minister mentioned COVID-19 game as a good wake up call a rude awakening. Africa has a compounded challenge of reducing access because of language barriers is the one continent where learners of all ages are taught in the engage in the learning experience through foreign languages. They have the double handle of dealing with the language and then with the concepts that they're being taught. And with the AI can break some of these areas they have two simple things like plugging translators that can help learners to learn in their languages. slowly and slowly. We have many too many of them. But we can standardize orthography across groups of languages if we are serious about alleviating the burden in AI could pay play a huge role. AI can also help to be a to make our access to education more inclusive by opening up to the avidly abled persons like the visually impaired through audio facilities for the physically impaired because we can then take education to them rather than ask them to come to it. And also for those with honors. Your auditory impairments, because then we can provide the subtext. And so the first challenge that Africa has is access in AI has multiple roles. The second challenge is moving curricula towards relevance. And a lot of curricula in African countries look like curricula from any other place. They are really generic, they add the vote devoid of context. And they're not well grounded and AI can help us translate curricula into lifelong learning systems themselves before we can count on them to support lifelong learners. But to do so means to create curricula that are flexible enough that are futuristic enough. Now if we talk about futuristic enough, we have we can tap on AI to collect Data the oxygen of our days the minister calls it and to support as with
big data analytics to serve as observatories, for trends in future competencies that are needed in life and at work, but also to enable us to update curricula time rather than be implementing obsolete curricula. And AI can do that which is very difficult to do now, as we use paper and pen type of curricular documents we need to mainstream AI and other technologies emerging technologies into our curricula not
does learn Oh, yes,
That so I just give
you two minutes to wrap up so we can get on to the panel discussion.
I actually put my timer on So I am I put myself on 15 minutes so I'm, I'm very careful about that, don't worry. When my timer goes, my 15 minutes will be over. So we need to mainstream is not just a learning area but as a way of educating and a way of learning and to make curriculum forms more affordable. Now when it comes to effective learning, AI has a lot of potential to help learners engage in self directed learning and to enable them into self is self benefiting agencies. It also has the potential to help as mainstream What are otherwise very difficult competencies beyond the traditional disciplines like collaboration, teamwork, negotiation, and interacting with the world interacting with others. multicolor federalism we can actually not only mainstream these through through AI, but we can observe the learning process and changes through AI as they happen and allow for the ability to monitor these. So cold 21st century competencies, AI can help us differentiate learning and customized learning. And it can also help sustain learning in and outside the classroom equally. AI can address shortages of teachers by pooling the few master teachers that we have so they can teach the world instead of just the kids in front of them. But as the teachers do that the master teachers do that with the novice teachers in class, we kill two birds with one stone because we are exposing learners to high quality learning and teaching. But we are also giving teachers on the job training that is very concrete and and easily and readily available and we can buy through AI, we can buy teachers time efficiency one thing that teachers are a resource The teachers are poor in this time, and a lot of that the time is taken by administrative tasks that can be quickly routinized even lower level teaching tasks like assessing lower level skills that need to be automated, like automaticity in reading automaticity in literacy, this can be achieved by
We can boost also the rigor of continuous assessment, particularly in a competency based environment, where we emphasize the developmental progression. And if we have carefully designed rubrics AI can help Do us assessment instead of the air depending too heavily on what do we call it, national exams that you have to wait years before you know that kids were not learning. And if I can help us close the assessment, feedback and responsive pedagogical loop, which things are very difficult for teachers to do in the classroom, now quickly on youth, AI can help us provide you updates on competence trends, as I said, they can locate the demand in the global labor market, where are the demands for these competencies so our youth can know that they work for the world and not for just Africa. They AI can provide a virtual marketplace to match demand to supply and AI can provide real time portunities for continuously skilling and upskilling. Now do we have the capability in terms of AI? The Honorable ministers touched on this, but I think I can leave that to discussion.
Yes, that will be. I mean, Doctor, I think that's absolutely fantastic session. And I think a couple of the things that we've gotten out of that is, you know how AI can allow us to create customized education, and also how we can use artificial intelligence as well to be able to create decentralized federated learning process, which obviously means that we can get the best of the best to teach everybody while everybody else learns in the same ecosystem, layering artificial intelligence on top of it, to allow us now provide a service, a systematic process of learning that develop the minds of the young people in Africa. We really, really appreciate it you Dr. Moreau pay for the insight you've given us and also how you end the UNESCO organization and thinking about AI as a future for Africa. Now we're going to go into the panel discussion, which is a quite an exciting panel of experts that we have lined up for this session. So for those of you who just coming on board, I'll introduce myself and introduce the rest of the panel. My name is john Kamara. I'm the director for the machine intelligence Institute of Africa, in Cape Town. I'm also the founder of Africa record here in Nairobi, which is an AI driven health tech platform, where we are as we're saying, solving health tech issues, COVID-19 issues using our AI as part of the solution within this ecosystem. And we'll be talking a bit more about that. I'd like to then introduce the rest of the panelists. Alex Sato, who's who you met Aaron will give them one minute each to introduce themselves. Alexa, would you introduce yourself for a minute?
All right, so just setting this back up.
Yes, I think you've already heard a lot of me a moment ago. But yes, Alexander Sato. So co founder and Board Chair of Alliance for AI. And you must be quite familiar with us now, as we are really set up to help accelerate. Anyone who's interested in in the fourth industrial revolution, we help accelerate them from the points where they have almost no knowledge of what's going on with programs and go all the way up to being an elite global player, because that's what we think is really do can really differentiate folks from Africa. Thank you, john.
Thank you. We're also going to bring in one of my really favorite people lately that I've been talking to a lot of Silicon Valley, who is creating a huge community for artificial intelligence and data science in Africa. At
AI, it's great to be here. My name is Selena Lee I'm dialing in from Cape Town, South Africa. And I'm the CEO of Indies. And these are data science competition platform focused on the African market. We host a community of 15,000 data scientists across Africa solving some of the world's most pressing business and social challenges using AI and data science.
Thank you, Selina. Our next panelist is somebody I've gotten to know quite well the past few days. We've had a few chat, late night in California and early morning here. Brian, tell me Brian, please introduce yourself.
Hey, how's everybody doing? It's fantastic to be here. Thank you for having me. I'm the CEO of her AI we invented technology that enables people to learn three to five times faster than traditional education by using artificial intelligence and by collecting over 10,000 data points every second to understand selling our technology to corporations here in the United States and around the world. For every license that we sell, we give away a free license to members of underserved communities globally, especially with a gender lens. And we have a heavy focus on Africa.
Thank you. And finally, we want to introduce to see Acharya who who is joining us from Nigeria.
And we're waiting for her to join us. But we will start the panel because of time and when she joins us will continue. So this this panel, as you can see, we've we've chosen quite an interesting panel because one of the key topics for this year is education, learning and accessibility for AI. And obviously, this is AI for Good and there's a lot of you know, social AI solutions and discussion that we will talk about Start with Selena. Selena, one of the things I want to talk to you about ask you is about social good in AI, and how is that what we call a commercially viable operation that allows you to scale businesses, but at the same time provide the social infrastructures that we need to help a continent with, you know, building the community of data science and AI experts.
Or, um, so when we created xindi, we created xindi, with the recognition that there were organizations and companies across Africa that were generating more and more data. And so we were living in a world of data abundance, but at the same time, organizations didn't necessarily have the skills to extract the full value of that data through technologies like AI and machine learning. And at the same time, we realized that there was this growing community, this pool of young talent of incoming data science talent in Africa that was really going under the radar in terms of, you know, these organizations knowing about them. So I think in terms of social impact. Just just putting the pieces of the puzzle together, just creating a space where the organizations and companies that need these data science solutions and talent and at the same time, creating a space for African data scientists to showcase what they're capable have to continue to hone their skills on real life problems and be like datasets. It's kind of a win win. So, you know, we're adding business value, but at the same time, we're also creating, you know, new opportunities for African data scientists, in terms of employability and upskilling through through real life problem solving.
Ah, thank you. So, I'm gonna jump to you, Alex. What has been the challenges that you've seen in how we try to integrate artificial intelligence and things like basic machine learning into various ecosystems in Africa? What are the challenges around education and what are the touch points, you think government should To be active about
the biggest challenges really well, education is the biggest challenge in terms of bringing any new technology into any ecosystem. Because that's the entry points people need to know about technology and loss. Today, it's really with the traditional education system, as I come to understand it awfully, that a lot of you might be able to comment on this as well. It's not built to change rapidly as rapidly as technology is changing. And so it needs some support. Either it needs to be redesigned, or there needs to be an opening for new kinds of platforms to exist on top of the traditional platform. For example, you have many AI communities across the entire continent of Africa that are coming up with programs and initiatives to teach people about this new technology. Right and AI is not the last one in the next few years. There will be something new, it's continues to change. And so we need to set up the platforms to recognize these new systems are common up on top of the traditional systems to support them. Some examples are data science, Nigeria platform, and AI Kenya might now if I start to have a list of about 80 of them that exist on the continent, organization, Alliance for AI, as I mentioned before, greentech, this distributed crowd healing program, in the form of AI clubs that will want to distribute not just to schools, but even religious centers, like churches and mosques and other parts that will help people to learn. Well, we then call on the government to figure out a way to help recognize people who come with capabilities and not just folks who have degrees. I'm sure Brian will talk about this as well later on with his AI. You know, incredible AI platform is truly cutting edge as the top companies in the world. Leveraging what brand is building a pause. Thank you,
Brian. I'm gonna I'm gonna ask you a different spin of a question that we're getting from the audience, one of your, you know, they're asking us use it in the US. And obviously, you are doing amazing stuff with it. How easy is it for a company here in Africa to be able to apply machine learning? One because of the lack of education, which and to because of the cost of artificial intelligence? And how do they actually find this one? There are a lot of our audience wants to know from you, what is your take on this? And how do they, you know, proactively go around this situation?
Sure. That's a fantastic question. And, Alex, thank you very much for the kind words as well. So one of the interesting things about artificial intelligence right now is that most of the algorithms that most AI companies use have been around for 3040 years. The biggest difference, the biggest differentiator for artificial intelligence companies now whether they're here in the United States are in Africa, is the quantity and the quality of the data that you collect. Now, the car of running artificial intelligence in your company for all of the people that are watching has plummeted, because there are a lot of off the shelf tools that you can buy from these larger organizations that enable you to implement artificial intelligence into your existing platforms or into tech, not the companies that you have. The key is what is the data that you're collecting? How do you model your How do you build those models in a way that the data is structured and clean, and provides value ultimately for the solution that you're trying to generate?
Thank you. Selena. I'm going to go back to you again, from a question from our audience. How do you think what are the chances of survival for startups in the African ecosystem in the AI space and we really want you to be honest here because people really want to know that you are right in the in the center of it.
mean speaking from the point of view of a startup Working in the AI space in Africa, I think, um, let's see. I mean, I feel I feel optimistic. And part of the reason why I feel optimistic, it's because like I said, we reached 15,000 users on xindi in about a year and a half. And every week, we have hundreds of new data scientists that are joining the platform. And so the reason why I feel optimistic is because I feel like there's this movement that's happening in Africa, across Africa, from South Africa, to Zimbabwe, to Ghana to Tunisia, there's a movement that's happening. And so I think that, well, there's still a lot of challenges for startups in Africa, any startup in Africa, there's challenges in terms of, you know, raising enough capital and the market opportunities. But at the same time, if there's a space for a startup to succeed, I think that AI being on the cutting edge is well positioned. And on top of it, you have this driving force, which is the youth in Africa, which are upskilling quickly in this space and that will drive the innovations in the
Okay, so I mean,
if you allow me to add to that a little bit, the piece I also see is the is the information arbitrage, right? startups around the entire world is just it's hard for them to survive. But then across the world, many programs have been put together to provide support and guidance for the startup, provide free Cloud Credits, provide technical support, provide markets and support these programs around the world. But those programs are somehow not aware that Africa and startups are doing AI and so they're not advertising to Africa. And so there needs to be someone connecting that. At last for AI we do the best we can we make post on Twitter every time we find out because we are in San Francisco. And we're connected to all of this. So we see it and we know the opportunities. But perhaps there's someone larger than us. I can play this role as well. And he'll plug this gap because you have the accelerators from Amazon from Nvidia from Google from Alibaba. Helping 10s of thousands of startups across the world, but their portfolio of African startups is very slim.
Okay, so if we take the conversation from them, Brian, do you think that there is a need for collaborative partnership within the startup ecosystem in Africa first? And then do you think that AI itself is too, too much of a mystical value? And most startups don't really need? And how do you think Africa can leverage the opportunity that has been presented at the minute?
Yeah, that's a fantastic question. Look, collaboration is the key to success for any tech company. And part of the reason that San Francisco has done so well over the years and become the preeminent tech hub in the world, is because of the level of collaboration where people don't see each other's necessarily competitors. They see each other as people that they're going to collaborate with over the next 1020 3040 years, not Hey, this is just one transaction or how to beat this person at this other thing, it's all about how do we bring our talents together? How do we enable multiple companies to all be successful? And so I love what you guys are doing as far as bringing technology companies in Africa together to collaborate, enable them to be successful. And it's critical that they collaborate with the United States as well. What was the second part of the question that you asked?
We're talking about in terms of the mystifying AI? Is it necessary and important, and every company in Africa actually has to be AI driven?
Absolutely. I would say it's necessary for every company around the world to be AI driven at this point, look, Artificial Intelligence right now is where the internet was back in the 90s, where corporations were just beginning to realize that they need to have a website, they need to have an internet presence. And the ones that did we're able to perform radically better than companies that did not to the point where the short period later if you didn't have A website, you essentially didn't exist as a company. Artificial Intelligence is the same thing. It's not some super complex idea. It's something that will impact every single industry, every single company around the world. And the folks that ignore it are going to go the same way as blockbuster and other companies. So it's really critical that every company has an AI strategy and AI plan and understands how to leverage data and artificial intelligence to ultimately provide more value for their consumers and for their environments.
So we're saying y2k might happen to the companies you don't necessarily young enough.
And one last Lena, one last question, before we go back to the audience again. What do you see the role of the government in the push towards intelligence in Africa and specifically on health? How do you think AI can help achieve some of the milestones we need to achieve during this cobit period. A lot of people want to know that.
Or, I mean, I think I'm on the side of health. Now, I recently had a really interesting conversation were with someone about about the role of AI in Africa, in healthcare, and I think that, you know, it's, it's really about extending the limited resources that there are for healthcare, extending the reach, extending the or increasing the efficiency of getting services out to more remote, less, less accessible spaces, like less accessible people. And so AI is maybe not even necessarily going to be as revolutionary as like, you know, a robot doctor, but it can be as simple as, you know, diagnostics becoming more accessible and efficient, maybe more bio based diagnostics. You know, so that so that help extension health workers can can escalate cases as they need to be So I think that AI will play a critical role in healthcare in Africa, for sure. And in terms of the role of government, I'm not exactly know, probably has more experience in terms of the role of government and in AI, but I think that, you know, we're seeing some barriers or potential barriers versus benefits in terms of data security and data privacy policies, you know, especially for SMB work. So, across different markets, in South Africa, you have Poppy and other countries, you have more stringent or less stringent data, you know, policies and so I think that, you know, that's, that's something that governments will be looking at more carefully and that can either hinder or accelerate the use of AI in the market.
Until you see just joined us, Alex, I'm gonna go to her real quick to see can you hear me?
Hi, john, I can hear you How you doing today.
Good, good. Good. One very important question, and it's quite a simple question is, do you think that governments actually understand actual intelligence one? Do you think they use it as a buzzword too? And do you think actually, we need to train governments in Africa to actually understand what
So to see over to you?
Thanks for Thanks very much, john. I think my answer to that question be very direct. And I'll speak from the Nigerian perspective. In the last couple of months, honorable Minister for Communications on the Niger nighti Development Agency, I've been working around, you know, powering artificial intelligence and doing some work at the intersection of the public and the private sectors to ensure that we use you know, ai to drive collaborative effort around solving problems, and specifically in the area of information dissemination, education policymaking, and things like that. But one of the things that is really crucial for us to pay attention to is about our time Today, African governments don't quite understand the most of the challenges that, you know, the continent does have and power the technology. We haven't quite mapped out what our technology priorities should be as individual nations and as a continent. So for example, yesterday, you might have seen it in the news that the Association of the union of universities of Nigeria said that elearning is impossible in the country. And that is the academic union of universities, which is like the union around universal insurance. You know, welfare, we've been on your partial or full lockdowns for the last couple of months, you would have thought that people should be seeking I'm trying to figure out what the potential solutions will be as to how we can you know, enhance learning and I promise, it'll be an occasional about children, but you happen to the lecturers themselves saying that elearning is limits. And when you don't think about the policy frameworks in all four
I think we lost 30. And obviously the universities that are not working in Nigeria, so the internet is now.
please go ahead, well listen to me. Yes, we can hear you. Okay.
So I was saying, basic technology forms the very surface level foundation on which you cannot begin to build more advanced technologies like artificial intelligence, data science, and other computational technologies. And you'll find that I'd say that our governments do not understand the full scope of the power that technology does. We'll do our development as a company. And I mean to your question about whether we need to train governments, the first thing that we need to do is to, perhaps begin a reorientation process or the mindsets of the people on the government side, because all of the innovation that's currently happening within countries, I mean, I took my German country, for example, you'd see that the systems are powering technology, innovation, and growth, and all of that innovation are coming from the side of the private sector. And it's an all of this technology is concentrated in certain cities around the country. So it's not even permeated all of the different states of the country yet. So do we need to train of mind before we even begin to train the government, it's important for you to let you to remove the politics that, you know, held us down as a country and as a continent in such a way that our government officials don't resist technology because they think it will take their jobs away. They have, for example, for all satirized networks, where the first learning was such a worker in this lab in the country. And one of the most one of the greatest challenges we face, even in, you know, speaking to companies about training their staff speaking to governments, about rescaling and upskilling people, you know, public servants on the government side, is that a lot of people are afraid that they hear artificial intelligence will take away their jobs. And so they're resisting it with all the power in their mind. But what is simply non biological, non biological intelligence. It's only gonna create more jobs, you make our systems more efficient. And we're
gonna, the next person
says there's really not much that the governments of Africa can do about it.
Can Do we agree with you? Because of time, I'm going to ask one last question to you, Alex. And you'd be very quick about it. Two minutes and Do you think that African investors understand Artificial Intelligence in terms of investing in our local startups here? And do you think the likes of the ITU the UN funding organizations can do a bit more in terms of investing in AI driven companies? This is a question by a lot of the people in the audience so make it quick and fast.
quick and fast is 100% hundred percent that should be more funding coming into this stuff was the entire if I was to confess the entire reason for this entire session, was to create that awareness that there is AI happening in Africa, and foundations and cubic bodies should start to look into it and invest in it because this innovation coming out of Africa is very important and crucial important to meet the United States development goals by 2030. These innovations are are accessible, affordable and reusable across the entire world. better if you allow me to say that Innovation is coming from San Francisco, which tend to be a lot more expensive as they don't have the necessary context. And so then just wait 30 seconds to the government piece. Governments aren't I've had the privilege or honor to interact with governments across the entire world when you talk about deploying supercomputers to them, and I can say, competitor across the world don't understand AI, not just in Africa, but the way they fixed it was to create avenues for the private sector to influence the government and inform them. And with Africa, we must tap into the diaspora. You have Africans at the top of the top companies, they know what that is. There has to be must
tell them into the diaspora. Yeah, and on that note, I'm gonna have my closing remark before we hand back. It's been a nice, really enjoyable session. Thank you. Selina. Thank you, Brian. Thank you, Alex. Minister, Dr. Murphy. Also everybody who has been part of this panel, my path in Chelsea is very simple. I believe that Africa is a continent with numerous amounts of talent, the talent, we don't have shortage of talent, but we have shortage of decision makers and leaders who will allow us to enter that fourth industrial revolution, so that it doesn't become a buzzword that we consistently throw around. And it's also important that we have the right people who actually carving this institutions and who govern the process of the next level of information that we use to generate value in our continent, where we are right on the cusp of history. And if you look at history across multiple generations, there's always a time in life when there's a shift and a dynamic shift and change COVID-19 climatic conditions, all these things are part of those signs that are telling us there is going to be a new economic power. And there is no reason why Africa cannot be the economic power. So our governments, our Prime Minister, After our VCs, or investors have to rethink how they invest, how they provide solutions, how they provide opportunities, and also how they look inwards to allow our own startup own private companies. And most importantly, we must trust ourselves enough to make mistakes that allow us to learn very quickly. And they come to proponents of our history. There is no reason why we can't have a competition Africa, building AI solutions that can sell in America. There's no reason why we can't do the same in Europe and anywhere else. And as for that we have becomes a massive opportunity for us to to leapfrog this technology and use it to drive the value of our young generation where we own the US infrastructure in the world. So I'm really excited to be part of this change. I think there's a lot of things happening. I think all men should look in whether it is COVID, Korea presented an opportunity to look at all the startups in your country that are actually doing amazing things. Focus Those startups try to help them invest in them. Take a chance because the UN it you can only provide the software opportunities or we need to embrace it ourselves. Thank you very much. My name is john Kamara from our director, Alex Adam Ryan to lobby Selena and the ICU kasner. Back to you. Thank you
very much, john, and especially for the amazing time management. It was great and Big thanks to our distinguished speakers and the audience for such an interactive discussion. We would like to also thank our partners and sponsors for their continued support. Next week, we have three AI for Good sessions, their AI for gender inequality breakthrough track to be held on 23rd of June. The launch of the global dialogue on eSports to be held on Wednesday 24th June, and the AI for Good innovation factory life pitching session to be held on Friday 26 June For more information, please visit our website AI for Good dot ITU dot info Follow us on social media. We will also post all the information in our chat. So thank you very much and see you next week.