2020 Elections: What to Expect
7:52PM Jul 31, 2020
We've almost passed the 300 unit tests that we need to go into alpha release, but I'm going to need your help to complete and deploy it, and you don't need to be an expert in cryptography to help. Obviously, the more crypto geeks can help willing to work on this, the better, but you don't need to be an expert in cryptography to help. If you want to learn. I've got a free crypto course on YouTube that you can learn from. And, but you don't need to be a developer, either. obviously, that's useful again, integrating the mesh into existing applications. So you can wrap security around them. That's going to be powerful, but what we're going to need most of is people willing to try out the alpha release and give us feedback, tell us is the code working, is it solving a problem for them. And what features could we add that would make it better. Make it more useful to solve real problems. So you can find out more about the mesh in my hope talk which is in the archive. And on the mesh website math bash.com. So thanks for listening to my bump and please stay safe, and have a great remainder of your hope conference experience. Thank you.
be a consequential year of elections for many nations, but one of the most followed will be the United States. Before COVID-19, the trial of new technology through caucuses and primaries into the center of the controversy with the coronavirus the national debate about the security of mail in voting has ignited. Our next presentation will address the particular facts and expectations surrounding the 2020 elections. From a security point of view, we present, Harry horsey with 2020 elections, what to expect.
Thank you very much. It's so nice to be back I hope I kind of get the virtually the wipes, I always is one of my favorite conferences, always fun to be back and, and, and it's so sad that we cannot do this in person. So, when it when is going to be an election year in number of countries, and as mentioned us is going to be probably globally one of the most followed. So this talk is going to be a little bit having a conversation, what how we got into where we are right now. What is going on right now and what to expect. Before end of the year, and how you can help if you too. So, first of all, we are going to be couple of times clarifying terms, and recently very often, it has been mentioned by certain political speakers that voting is a privilege. No, it is a right and it is a right under privilege, but it's probably the most, it's arrived, and the founding fathers of United States tried to make it clear by mentioning that five times in the constitution so that there wouldn't be any questions about that. It also is a civic duty, and it's a mandatory in many countries, a 15 countries is enforced and a portion of those countries where it's enforced are in Europe, and there are eight more countries where the, it's mandatory and compulsory, but it's not enforced. But when you look to countries like in Europe, Belgium, Australia, Argentina, that gives you a little bit of idea of what kind of countries are are a. Seeing that this is so important. The participation is important they have made it compulsory even Switzerland, which is kind of neutral in everything else, they have a compulsory voting. Because at the end of the day, apathy is as dangerous to the democratic, ask somebody rigging the election or problem results. So, everything today what you're going to hear nothing should be read and heard, or there's nothing written in between line, which is saying you shouldn't vote. If you're eligible to vote in your home country. This vote. It's very important. It's very important bigger the turnout is, it's more the transfer that the results are, and always participate if you can. So this year, the president. So, our primary season was kicked off. In February, 11 in New Hampshire, I was invited by Secretary of State, New Hampshire, Bill Gardner, to be there and observe and and go around the state from one polling place to another. This is the actual ballot, there was a Iowa caucus the caucus is not the election and we will come back, how does this around by the political parties in New Hampshire this election run by election office. So this is what the actual ballot look like and in New Hampshire, it's very simple. It's a single page it's a it's not complicated palette. A lot of places where the palette was multi page, my own balance was two pages double sided to bold. So what are we talking about and where did we all came from, I have been packing voting machines and looking into election security, since 2005 when I was invited by election supervisor I am trying to Tallahassee, Florida capital of Florida to take a look into the system. He says, I have been participating in major commission election machine studies, as a researcher in the United States and abroad. In 2016 elections, which also, which by the way still are going on, not about the results, nobody's really getting litigating results. It's about the the rights to inspect the machinery and rights to see the source code and inspect the hardware used in the election, those indications are still going on. And nobody knows how long it's going to be take. I'm a co founder and co organizer of DEF CON voting machine hacking village. And also I'm one of the cofounders of electron industry Foundation which is a nonprofit, doing an election voting these kind of activities educational efforts and trying to help in in the critique of eloquence and critical infrastructure. And recently, there has been a HBO documentary with the second one I'm participating Gilson, the cyber war and American elections which is looking into this. It was four years of filming. It came out, it just went to coronavirus heap so it has been a little bit under the radar, it will be a nice movie in in DEF CON. So it's right now behind a paywall, but if you are coming to DEF CON you can watch it for free there.
So, this talk is not about making announcement of new hack, this is not an A, making claim that elections have actually been hacked and definitely and foremost, this is not a political statement. So I don't try to read any kind of political statements, one way or another. I tried to stay away from that. I'm only caring about the election integrity, and to be this would be never be partisan issue or of any kind. It doesn't matter who you are wanting to vote it most important things that your vote will count as your cast, no matter who you are, vote. So, this is all about that. So right now we are going to go first through the inside, what, what happened before. Then we are going to have a conversation about the future what to expect, and where we are going to go.
And also, as mentioned,
I'm running a business which is an a security company with ellickson practice, but there's also a nonprofit and we are helping governments, and we're mainly working for governments in this area, helping them in getting the understanding the equipment, understanding how to mitigate against the risks what the raise costs, etc. And also providing help to train people to do the security related work and having security considerations. Right. Ethics simulators videos whatnot. So, this is how it all started. This is the, the iconic picture of 2000 election when there was a pregnant ballot and replica shard and hanging shard and whatnot. So it was a punch card voting in Florida, 2000, and people couldn't punch the hole and the recounts went on and people tried to understand what's going on, who won dx. But it was really a recent but it was a result of analog our form, we had that actual paper and we had the actual punchcard styles, and the device the butterfly device in DEF CON. I'm a big strong man. And when you start to push the stylist and try to separate the shot. The shots when they separate from the ballot they stack underneath that physical location, more popular your candidate is bigger the stack is and harder it is to push. So it's very easy to see that a senior citizen of Florida, you know, with our affairs will have a very similar problem to try to separate that Chad cleanly from about. So this was extremely easy problem, which could have been for us in could have been solved. And as easily as just to say, co workers once an hour go and shake that booth because that would have been dispersed or shed underneath that location evenly and the whole problem would have been solved. Well, That was a huge amount of embarrassment. America did what America always does in this kind of things they came together and decided to throw a lot of money into the problem. And that's what how Help America Vote Act was created, which is probably creating the problem we have right now. Because, it created the pool of money and, but no security standards no mandatory standards whatsoever, were imposed. So, states and their jurisdiction were pretty much left to on their own, and there was a cold Ross everybody went to the future shop and bought whatever was tried to be sold to them, and implemented it so then the step which should have been taken first is let's think about the security implications what we are doing. Let's make a design. Right procedures and that whole part was missing and that created the crowd which the controversies we are seeing today, and in going forward are also because the, the federal government really doesn't have much to say in this first of all the equipment and software comes. The only part where the some in oversight is, is when you're looking in a vote acting devices that leaves a lot leaves the matriarch of the election infrastructure outside of any kind of federalism, but also the standards which are used, they are not standards they are, they are volunteer voting system guidelines. And as their volunteer and as their guidelines, there's a lot of relaxation in, and also the text itself in, in, in the world guidelines which are used today, and which has been used against the certification of these machines. It's basically silent about anything to do with computer security and system security. So it is more or less not electrocute the voter less than to electrocute the poll we're at a poll worker. Let's make these safe to use an emissions and whatnot.
Now, this is the problem in the other part, a we are really not looking the election the right way elections are never about the winners, because the winners are always going to be accepting the results. elet government democracy, with which cornerstone of which is the winner. The cramp promise of democracy and the one thing democracy has accomplished, unlike anything else is a peaceful transition of power, people have a right to express their desires and after they have decided to express their desires, there will be a peaceful transition to ours, whoever will have been chosen to run on whichever way has been asked to be around. And because the winners are always accepting results. Really ellipses are about showing transparency and showing evidence so evidence based prove to tell the people who didn't get it that way, the people who were losing candidates or supporters losing proposals that this election was conducted free and fair and square. So they accept the results. Because if you don't accept the results. That is one of the poison pills, which might be endangering possibility of the peaceful transition of power. And that's really what democracy is all about. Also, when we are looking the law and the election loss, the election last in last part. There have been a lot of good intention the loss. But the actual practice on the field seems to be different. It's very common to say that the ballots, have to be stored under lock and key for a certain period of time. Very often this period of time where we have a federal election in the ballot. Then the time period they have to be stored on lock and key is 22 months that dumpster there is taken, six months after the election and those are the President's election ballot from 2016. That was that jurisdictions idea of what lock and key storage of ballots, which might be used as an added needed data and evidence might be looking like nothing malicious here, it's just that the education hasn't gone through, because we have to remember that election officials are elected themselves in large part of us. Which means that there's, there's no job requirement. There's no training requirement. And they all when they get elected they need to find out how the deck at the top get the instructions. You have to be helping them to understand not only what they are supposed to do, but very often help them to understand why they are doing it. Why so there is no deviation from the intentions of the laws, the US elections in general are very good. And when I'm helping Secretaries of State, and jurisdictions. Very often my first commendation is, how about enforcing these laws and it's there's nothing malicious does that they didn't know what the law has been meant to do and what are the best practices, and you're getting the best practice. Again, I don't I will go through this but the general idea here is that there's a lot of attitude problems, and people who are in elections are really sometimes not thinking, elections are important because they are not counting money, they are sometimes thinking that citizens are stupid because they're doubting the election. And there are a lot of excuses. This is all I see a training issue where you have to be able to train the election officials policymakers regulators to understand this issue. And I took one to put the second light out because even when it's not directly related to today because I found it so hilarious I went to one jurisdiction, and a large scouting swing safe swing County, they were saying well I we don't understand why you're coming here we are completely unhackable. All our systems are completely air gapped because we all use Wi Fi. And I bursted laughing I thought that was a great delivery of a joke. And when I start laughing David's looking like, oh, what did he go crazy, just have to head. And then there's. Oh, that's what they think it is, they think that air gapping is Wi Fi. Well, we might have a little bit of education to do.
So, a fun fact,
over 200 million registered voters over 13,000 voting jurisdiction jurisdictions. Now when we're talking about new technology coming. There's a depressing. Very often have the old wireless network in the braising area. So, the number of phrases was about hundred and 87,000. That would have been about 187,000 before coronavirus, a lot of those have a their own networks, and the joke, which is not funny because it's true is that you have about 30,000 active networks, but they are only running, give or take 10,000 firewalls. A lot of these networks are really not perfect. And the key thing here is that we have an idea in our head, that there is an election office and the election office has an ID department and the ID department has a security practice. Well, nothing could be further from the truth, almost nowhere. There are a security people and actually most of the jurisdictions don't have even a permanent IP staff. Everything is outsourced and done by with volunteers. And when we look how much new technology have been pouring into the election area, we really should have an IP department which happens to do elections and not the other way around. So in the last 20 years the whole description, and the whole description what election office is has turned upside down. While the election officials have not given the resources, the tools to handle that transition and outsourcing really is not an answer in this in this environment. So right now, it's the lack of resources lack of knowledge, not the lack of access to people and information, and then being for that is one of the big problems we need to tackle. Again, before we go forward. Confusing terms because these are very often used interchangeably or they're not election fraud is basically a fraud against the voters because it is it elegent is a zero sum game. Everybody's vote is tied to everybody else's fault because all the votes are contributing to the same goal. This is the reason why you cannot say, Who cares if I'm careless with my vote I want to vote over internet or do crazy stuff or fax my vote over, but this my vote. Well, that's not exactly true, because there's only one set of results and, and people who are wanting to do irresponsible things are not only this privatizing themselves, but as a result, they're contributing the possible disenfranchises of everybody else. So we are really together here, and working together to get the elections say there is no option, I want to do whatever I want, because it's a it's only affecting my vote no, there's only one set of results. So election fraud is ultimately a fraud against the voters because it alters the result voter fraud is completely different, because that is a umbrella term for voters who are not cheap voters who have no right to vote, and they are casting a ballot, and this is these terms are completely different. As you can easily say voter fraud is a always individual base. It is a retail. That's a. It's hard to scale by election fraud is something which is scalable, to a large scale, but these are completely different crimes completely different problems, and it really is important to push these two separately, so that we know what we are talking so deep. One of the things which I feel over the last 15 years has been a little bit misleading, is that we have been over focusing into the voting terminal, whether it's a touchscreen machine or whether it's a paper scan, because that is a such a small part of the whole infrastructure. The whole election starts from voter registration databases. It comes from there to eapol books, there's the election management system where the ballot definitions are in a ballot design, whether it's going to pre shuffle but it's on your screen. It's the whole tabulation all related to that. It's the electronic reporting system and all the reporting system which are separate. And then this system, very often come from completely different companies, and it's not uncommon that there is a homebrew code between these systems on hold and definitely homeroom practices between these systems.
So why, why, and then there are other things like campaign financing databases, etc, etc, which are also managed. Very often, by the election officials. So, we have been looking very narrowly. The public discussion has been very narrowly focusing into one area, while the from an adversaries, whether it's a individual. A anniversary person, or whether it's a well multi very well funded for a nation state. The attack surface way bigger than what we have been focusing on our discus. So, before coronaviruses all was supposed to be different, and there have been continuity of two rollouts in the area. This whole change of having computerization started 2002 in a massive scale because I Help America Vote actually plus billion, but right now the two new technologies which are continuing to be a rollout and which are one way or another. Almost every single time when we have a bad headlines. That is a. Those are going to be involved in that and the other one is the replacement of paper ball books with electronic poll books which are very often just normal tablets or remote PCs, running the software, and then rollout of backup ballot marking devices as a universal voting method for all voters. We will go in detail to both. So, both books. These, since you have a, especially in places where you have 10s of thousands of voters coming in, during normal year into one location, you have to have a multiple station where people are checking in. For that reason, you have to have a network where the old books are synchronizing with each other, who has been already checked in, in this location. And very often they have internet or internet cloud back end, which is giving a access to the other databases, giving. Same Day registration, allowing you to have an oversight what's going on, etc. They these databases are these. When you have a data from DMV, and what not of this CR system is a import, export process, because also after election. The who voted, that is a public data so there are a lot of updates, which happen in the election day address changes. Even name changes in some cases, even the, the fact that you voted, all of that has to go back to the statewide or county database, because it's a public data and the data which is needed, they call it. So there's a massive amount of data which needs to go back and forth. And because the systems are have been developed the bulk system have been developed separately, and by completely different entities than voter registration systems, there has to be a data formatting and whatnot. And this is not regulated there's no a federal guidelines how to do it some states are having a enacted, their own security guidelines or security standard for this, but there's no uniform here. And when you are trading in the news that somebody found millions of voters from a cloud server without password, it usually is a data unification and data reformatting needs done by the vendors of the technology, taking the database mangling it, and putting it uploadable to the data to the ebooks. And these are really a general purpose machines. We have had the DEF CON voting village few of the, of these machines. Of course you need to have your candy crass and Netflix player in your, in your evil book system because why not, especially when they are network devices communicating via internet, there's no problem there. Again, the massive issue here is if somebody gets access, if a adversary party only wants to create chaos.
The only thing needed is for example in the primary, Take a small tiny percentage of the voters change their address change their party affiliation, do something for the data, and it immediately causes one lines, because now the data needs to be validated as provisional ballot casting. There's a lot of things which needs to be done. And again, when people. Democracy is fractured but democracy is very emotional. If something goes wrong. People are very very noisy and create a lot of noise which is then adversary parties who might only want to cause chaos. only So, this court only show undermine trust. These are the seeds, those actors can use in social media to make a small issue look bigger ish. So, again, this is an area which needs to be looked at and I would strongly recommend that a standards and recommendations of like practices would be enacted widely in this area because this area is crawling, and it's crawling issue. growingly showing in the headlines, as an issue. For example, the Georgia election, with a primary. There was a lot of reporting and I was personally I saw a poll watcher in a place where they couldn't have opened the polling place at the time when it was supposed to be open. They were opening it almost two hours late because they couldn't activate the poll books. It's just a massive problem if you don't have a paper backup of marketing devices, they were originally conceived in 2000 to Help America Vote Act as a method for disabled voters to vote with the same privacy as a voter with a paper about no those systems are proposed to be a general universal method of voting. So basically, putting a computer between voter, and about. There are four main ways these ballot marking devices. Today, work. So first of all, the terminology, again, voter mug paper ballot used to mean a voter taking pen, and marking about in the last two years, voter my paper ballot has been meaning a touchscreen computer and printer. While hand Mark paper ballot is now, meaning a person with a pen and paper. There are four main variants. It's the boss which brings a really the same ballot, as the human would have been felt, and almost filled the machines which are printing a two dimensional barcode kind of QR code with the encoded result encoded, a vote, and then a human readable summary of what the voters choices. Hyper devices which we have been calling in the security community lovingly licensed to cheat, because these devices commonly asked the voter, would you like to inspect your paper about before actually printing. So if you say no, it really can print whatever, and it goes directly through the scanner under the ballot box, and the voter cannot change the mind say oh, I really would like to know whether you printed see now, so too late. And there's a new system hybrid where the. You can use a web interface on web to make your pre selection of your choices. You're given a, a QR code into your mobile phone, which you show to the machine, and then the machine is I'm going to print the ballot Would you care to see. Of course, most of people say no. So now you don't know what the barcode say, and it's going to be translated not a barcode and it goes down, down to the trade. So, these, obviously are convenience at the problem as we know, corn vinius is always an enemy of a security, because people always. And, again, the ballot marking devices have already been subject to a number of glitches, one of the big questions here is what is the vote of record. Is it the barcode or the human readable. People who are proponents for these devices. They make two claims, the first claim is oh there's the human readable. So if there's something wrong you would catch it. The second part is to say, Well this device is up preventing voter errors like overvoltage nondurable. First of all, for the last decades, the voting machines have scanners which are taking your hand Mark paper ballot. They have had the capability of returning the ballot to you. If you are under voting, or override so that feature has been already existing and it has been up to the jurisdictions, if they enable that feature or not.
The The second part is, there's already regulations coming in number of states, which are already telling that if there is a question of the result, and there's a need for record the recall is done by the machine reading the same barcodes again, which means that yes there is a human readable text, but it's not used for it. Also, all of these all of these barcodes, I have been inspecting, those are those are encoded, So if you use your mobile phone, reading the code. The code, you get a meaningless information for you to validate if the barcode is reflecting the human readable. So there's a disconnection between those two things. So we are in the situation with the ballot marking devices where this is probably the most emotional most heated area of controversy right now because the ballot marking devices, really take away the possibility of risk limiting audits. If you cannot trust the trail, if you kind of trust from the origin of the paper trail. The Chain of Custody everything. Now you're in a situation where what do you, what is the value of DoD and the demonstrate this the one of the many times, hope speaker, Professor Alex Halderman and his team in in the University of Michigan. They conducted an academic test and they can papers downloadable where they run a mock mock election which was truncated simplified version of a previous election ballot asked the voters to vote with these ballot marking devices. And this was they were explained that this is a testing the user experience of a new voting unpick no to the voters, every single paper ballot coming out of the machine had something changed was not any more representative representation of the voters choice and top of my head, it was sadly under 77% of voters, actually caught that all the papers given are different than the choice. And still we are now in a situation where they knew there was a test going on. They were paying more attention, they had all the time they were not rushing to drop their kids off to school or picking that up from the daycare, they were having all the time in the world. So even that I would argue personally that the result of seven frozen is almost certainly way higher than what would have been the real election situation where people are stressed and they have been out in line and, and they are trying to run somewhere. By the way, I'm not reading through everything on the slide. So, this is not meant to be I'm reading through the all the slides. And there has been a number of different problems there has been a reason. I tend to audit the barcodes. And in that study it was found out that about 3% of the barcodes printed on the ballots were unreadable and interpretable best of my knowledge, nobody has provided a evidence or explanation. What was the problem was it the scanning Was it the printing or was there something wrong that the barcodes were damaged in the first place. I was in, in, in, in Georgia I saw a number of times people carrying the barcode across the room from the printer to the scanner, and the scanner rejected
the barcode. Nobody knows why. One of the biggest reason. Controversies was parked from Northampton County, Pennsylvania, where they use a hybrid device one of those devices which asked Do you want to see the ballot before printing it. So when, when the election was over a candidate which was expected be doing pretty well out of 55,000 votes, about the voting machine reported only 164 votes for this candidate in a ballot marking device Mark pals. Well, obviously, that was suspicious we'll run it. Tests suspiciously wrong, and the elections officials did the right thing they cracked up there, they in that system they call the paper about as a backup, which is again not a way of changing the terminology they kept the voting machines open and reprocess the ballots and found out that the candidate who I end the official report of the machine had had 164 votes actually have had a 26 and 26,142 votes, and vote by over 1000 votes. So, we already have a real world duck well documented cases where we can see that the whole language of this is a paper ballot backup it's not the real ballot, etc. We have to really go through this and and really help people who are policymakers and regulators to understand that, what, what are the dangers. if you're redefining what paper ballot needs in common sense and a common layman terms paper ballot, is a human pen, marking the ballot, not a computer or using barcodes. Now, the controversy off mailing voting, first of all, the mailing water is nothing new. It has been around for 150 years before coronavirus in five states, the only way to vote was vote by mail so mailing bulk basically vote by mail absentee mail in voting they are all with a very very small flavor differences, they are basically the same process with a different loom flavors on top. So five states were already hundred percent nailing about By May, 29, additional states had a no no excuse, absentee ballot or no excuse mailing request. You didn't need to provide any reason why you want to vote by mail use if requested and your When done, and 17 states had the capability of with an excuse, which is your nursing home you have it with around whatnot, to go. So this is nothing new. And if you have ever seen how this process works. You have a ballot, you have an envelope, you put another envelope. You put a ballot into an envelope, you put that envelope, you sign it with your information you sign with your signature, you put in in the other envelope and then that envelopes gets made. So the whole idea that, which have been the public saying the country x is printing thousands of pounds. It doesn't make any sense if you ever vote by mail, because now you see how there are checks and balances and this is using the same back end database to ask if you would be in person book. So, again, in this process, there are checks and balances Actually, there are a lot of rejections when, especially the younger generations who don't do handwriting school, their signature is not any more consistent, because they have never learned to use their signature that much on their handwriting. And again, there's a rejections with different states have different standards, how strictly, they have to be everything matching so that they accept about
what they were bailing voter fraud is looking like a Yo yo yo yo yo yo la law school in California. They made a huge study found that about billion from the billion ballots cast in 2014. There were 31 credible instances of impersonating fraud. When you look at what has been prosecuted. There's actually almost no prosecution whatsoever. In a this area. So, when you look what is documented, over the years, in the area of mailing voting yes there is fraud but we are not talking about any kind of significant amount. There are no millions of folders documented anywhere. Who would be have been using mailing or in person voting to create a voter fraud, and there's a good reason for that. And the good reason is, if you would be a non citizen, and you would be voting. The punishment is severe. What is your impact, you can cast one vote. But what is the risk. So it really makes sense that a suspect the non citizens would not even try to do when, when you look the bigger studies, the most common voter fraud, which have been found is double voting by American citizens who have two homes, they vote in both residential places. And one of the nother destinations being, of course Florida where you have your summer home or withdraw and whatnot you call it. So it really is the uneven in that area, we are talking very small numbers. And the issues are, of course, there are issues, and there are a lot of false claims. The most commonly claimed fraud type is as people traveling around and stealing ballots from the mailboxes and voting with those. Well, that is, that's called valid collecting and harvesting really well. There's another term in the logic, that is valid tampering invalid temporary stealing the ballot is always a crime everywhere on all 50 states.
Both valid collecting and ballot harvesting are part of very embedded many states, they are practices which are part of legal ballot assistance. So, we have to be very careful again with the terms. In order to understand that one practice which is acceptable and legal in one state might not be acceptable in other states. And you cannot use these terms, an umbrella throw a lot of things into that, claiming it's all crime, where for example the ballot collecting and ballot harvesting practices, which are illegal in one state are legally 27 other states. So you have to be very careful to analyze and understand and I think this is the part where the journalists have been trying to do a good job of their voice has been lost in the wild west in the noise, get make the differentiate so you understand the terms have a completely different meaning and you cannot just use a one basket for, for everything. What went wrong, is because we all saw that, it's a it was a mobile app, which was being updated, literally three times in the last week before the election was not tested. Really data quality and the massive problem was not only that the app failed. But when they failed people were trying to call in and election headquarters, and all the telephone wires were jammed so they couldn't get through and report devils. So what happened. First of all, the dial in jamming is nothing new. This is how it was done before the internet, posting a classified ad, having a lot of things like collectible cars, having that that could be put after the election, but having something very nice looking in the list, which means being able to call and try to pre reserved that item cheap car, you know, these kind of things. And of course, putting the number instead of being somebody else's home, the election office. All right. The second thing what happened was a panic. And the panic here was that people were starting an official we're starting to tweak the worksheets. One of the, the quarter two problems. The first thing is that if you see in the top right hand corner is from Twitter, you see the PIN code which they are supposed to use to identify themselves when they actually get dialed in. So by posting this now, those pin codes and, which was, which will be used to come in the second communication now that good communicator. Now those pinkos got out in a while, but the second problem was that people didn't understand, well how the coke was works, this is not real Alex. So again, you see the last one. There is a 3.2 is rounded up before, while earnings go that way other people are pointing out there are a math errors and favoritism no compensation or don't use a normal math. So, all the claims of these sheets, provide evidence of a fraud of it as of a favoritism. Not true. They just didn't know the rules. And again, the second result which was the, I would say good resolve was a more than one peacefully and nicely more than one candidate gave a victory speech and everybody left the state, there were no controversy no civil unrest. It was just understood that this is a problem, which used to be fixed. After this, that software was not used in, it was planned to be used in following years, I was in Atlanta, Georgia, primary, this is the picture from their massive lines, caused by problems of being able to activate either the ballot marking devices or the evil books, or both. And people were in line, long, long, long times. And the second controversy is here. This is a ballot, where you see the two first Yes, This has been the first few have been yellow mark the scanner has recognized it, but the last one on the bottom, or Sarah Hopkins whoever she is not registered. So, the new controversy have sparked when the ballot ballots have been worked with, with electric boats and the electric boats have not been recognized by a scanner. Of course, as very often the first result, it was to blame the voter the voter didn't know how to vote, and were the voter were didn't fill the ballot as well. The issue here is that this is the paper showing how the papers will be about to be built. And as you say valid markings is a check mark. So, they are valid marks and people and others are being trained to say this is a valid mark. Of course the primary way would be to build a ballot, but there's no discussion, whether it was a valid vote or not.
Again, so the last thing always vote if you can always well, so if you're voting by mail vote. First thing, read the instructions very carefully, don't expect that if you do go a little bit different than what has been asked to do that it will count. No, expect that ever so small error every sim Sim, any difference you do from how you vote will result, your vote to be tossed mark the ballot carefully. Also in California, there was an incident where even when the envelope says poster stage in the introduction, it says, Well, if it's a multiplate bout you might need to put additional postage, and then it was a two page out in that place the county bailed out and bought or from Boston all underpaid out. Nobody knows what happened on transit. So again, read the instructions and make sure that you have done everything right, especially if you are an expert not rules, which, where if there's any deviation, you have not mark your apartment number you have done anything small different in real world wouldn't make the difference. You can expect that your ballot might be tasks and try to pay attention how you saw that but the paper. So these. What is your signature because we do that, I mean if I would be trying to sign things Same way, very very hard, it. Again, this was a news yesterday, US Postal Service has a huge backlog. This because they have changed their practices, and this has been blasted by wall street Washington Post, as a threat for the ballot delivery mail a ballot in early. If you are voting in person as you saw the lines. Expect long lines take water with you to take a foldable chair umbrella. It's a power back for your mobile phones things to read and play again. Know your rights in almost everywhere. Yes, if you are in the line. If the polls are closed. You have a right to vote at the polling place, open, stay open till one o'clock one o'clock in the morning if needed. You, as long as you have joined the line where the polls are open, you are, you have a right to vote. The other part is if the systems will fail. You shouldn't be served a provisional ballot because frozen ballots didn't matter whether your vote count system, or reverse, as if you're offered provisional ballot what is the justification for provisional ballot if you are a registered voter, you should, and the system is Donald they kind of process your ballot. They should give you a real, real normal now. If you want to help. First of all, vote. The second thing is become a poll worker, the other sets of poll workers come up one year every year. And the other part which I want to promote is the cyber search initiative which is a, an initiative to pair security researchers certain professionals hackers, with a local election officials need help, this is the way to give them access to the information and knowledge they need. The last, this isn't real voting machine used in winter in New Hampshire. It is a physical thing It houses ink. It gives a bell it shows how many ballots have been going. This is exceptional because they have so few voters they are counting, and counting the ballots. That's why they hit results, always fast, what to expect. These are my predictions. First of all the cities, and large jurisdictions will get their results late, so you in the election night you will have one night of results which are going to be smaller jurisdictions. Those are going to report in fast. After that it will take a while for the larger jurisdictions, don't expect the results to be that night, expect that this might be a week long time when the results will be moving, also because the process is, is a slower. There have been already the primaries wild swings, where the. There have been a 50% chance that's just because the results are coming in slower. So stay call and help other people to come and know that the results will come trade by trade, and for that reason, there will be a changes of winners and there will be changes in processes while the counting proceeds.
That's it. Thank you. Any questions.
harri hursti, thank you so much, what to expect for the 2020 elections, we really have time for literally one question so here it is. And you have one minute to answer this one. So get ready, as citizens, what should we tell our local governments to do, getting ready for this election.
If it does still open. One thing. What do you want to do is paper hand marked paper ballots and mandatory risk limiting audits in United States, it's mind blowing to me. Originally from Europe that a losing candidate has to be paying and after paying for Rico and not all states have a mandatory. If it's close enough to mandatory audits asked for risk limiting or to say a very cheap Donda wonderful public participation. As for paper ballots hand marked paper ballots. So once you have 100 Mark papers out so you can do a race to the north and recently ignored will prove, not that the election is to the last vote accurate at the voting, they haven't chosen the right winners and losers. So that's so important. And we don't have any alternative to paper ballots at this point of time.
Fantastic. Okay, so people have heard where to find you can use remind us one more time if people are interested in your work, where's the best place they can find you.
They can find me through election integrity foundation.org. That's one place, my first name, last name, you know that's one word in a Twitter. That's another place to find me. And, of course, a DEF CON. Next week, so I'll be there weldability is going to be there.
Fantastic. harri hursti Thank you so much. This has been 2020 elections, what to expect. This is hope 2020, and we're going to pass it back to ground control.