2:01PM Oct 28, 2019
Fix the gain on this really quickly.
There we go. Okay,
so um, one of the things that's important to note about Buddhism and I don't know if I said it in this class or if I said it in the other one. But have you noticed that there's there's a market difference between, say, like Native American traditions, African tribal traditions, even Shinto models or ancient Chinese traditions, with the exception of Confucius, that they don't have like singular figures, right? It's more of a turd inherited tradition, or it's an inherited idea, or something that comes from the land, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, even more so than even Judaism have like singularly critical figures that are central to that religious practice. Does that make sense? Like there's authority. So you have the Mohammed, you're going to have the Christ, you're going to have the Buddha, you have these key people. And the reason that's interesting is because it creates a new a new issue for these religions that you don't get in the other wins. So within Hinduism, you don't have a problem of succession. That means you don't have a problem. When a religious teacher dies, or moves on or is no longer part of it, the religion continues to move the same direction, because the teachings don't revolve around a particular person. But in these other traditions, that is a problem that becomes a critical issue. And it's why you see in those multiple different sections of that tradition, so over here in Islam, you might have Sophie's Sunnis and Shiites because it's all a distinction on what happens after Muhammad. In Christianity, you have what you call denominations, right? Because there's a question of who's the inheritor of the original sayings teachings, whatnot. It's the great dispute between let's say, the gospel writings in the Bible and the writings of the later texts of Paul right, or it's the question here in Buddhism of after the Buddha, what next? Is it my Ayana, Tara Ivana Buddhism, Mariana Buddhism, those are the questions that Like who inherits the teaching? So it's not a problem I'm trying to resolve. But just to show you that that's one of the reasons you see a multiplicity in certain religious traditions, and not others that making sense. So we talked about some of the new nuances of Buddhism, I think, did we do we cover this frame? Okay, good. So the problem with any kind of tradition that concerns itself with a singular figure is going to be a question of authority, right? And authority is not something that's just unique to them. By the way, thanks again for this so amazing. My wife and I'll read them out loud to actually I'll make her read them out loud to me. That may be like, like you all are saying, and she's saying, I had a colleague, and I went, I taught him a high school. And he he was teaching this like science class. All these students are this lab tables like freshmen, whatnot. And he's at the time he's probably I think, at that time, he's late 40s, maybe early 50s. And he says, he's like he sees these girls passing notes. He knows is a classic High School thing where he grabs the note, right? And he reads it and one goes past and the other one and it says, I know you love you think Mr. Smith is hot, but I dislike him as a friend. Right now, I don't know if these girls are joking or not. But he's like, he doesn't read it out loud. He folds it up. And he kept it in his sock drawer for like, the next four years. And like every now and again, he would like make his wife get it out and like read it to him. Because he's like, Look, see, see, these girls think I'm hot. Right? And so that's it. So hopefully somebody put something like that in there, right in the jar. And if you haven't, it still will be here after class if you want to stick something in there. So anyway, to go back the issue of authority is not just unique to those that have singular figures but it's uniquely sort of dealt with and those. So in the first stage that we see are the these beakers which are like monks, these are the monks that are following around the Buddha and learning his teaching. So the early stages of authority, you have the singular figure and you have his immediate followers, right? It just so happens that those followers end up sort of having different interpretations of how his teachings are to be transmitted over time. So I start there to say the early stages of any kind of Do you know what the word monastic means? It's not just a Christian term and it's not just a Buddhist term. So I'm I don't want you going to see the word appear monarchist either, as well. MON Where do you see this prefix and other things? monologue. monotheistic good, what's the word mean? Then what does moto mean? One, right. So a Monica, or a monastic is someone who independent like, has a singular experience, right, is separated out from society as more individually. And you do that in order to purify the self, whether that's in the Buddhist tradition, or in other places, you do that to purify the self from the distractions of things. And so in the early stages, you have the leader and you have all these monks sort of Surette monk is just a short way of saying monastic. Right? It's like squeezing the word. It's like Brangelina. Right? You squish the word down,
which is called a portmanteau. Anyway. So that's for funds for free, while your friends, but you squeeze more. So anytime you have these monks, they're sort of followers of this religious leader and that's the case here with the Buddha. After the Buddha goes away, whether he goes into pair Nirvana, or whether he just dies, or whether he rejoined sort of the obliteration of things, whatever is the case, these councils start to emerge amongst these because in amongst these religious followers, and there are three of them, basically. And the question of all these three councils is based is kind of like, what are the teachings and what is authoritative? Do you know the word canon, CANON? Not canon isn't gun. What does the word canon mean CANON? Yes, you could say that it's definitely gonna be interpreted that way. But it's simpler than that. It actually means not. I don't No, but and I just teasing you and teasing you. It means measurement. So that the cannon is like the measurement by which you determine something. For example, Star Wars canon, right? Or Marvel Universe? Is it called Marvel? What is it called? CMCU? Marvel Cinematic Universe, right? That's canonical, right? Meaning, if there if somebody goes off and makes a little cartoon about Spider Man, there will be debate amongst Marvel fans as to whether that's Canon or not. Meaning does it get included in the authentic storyline? Or is it a rogue independent unit you follow? So you have that with all kinds of TV series that have offshoots? is it part of the cannon? Is it the measurement of the whole story? Or is it outside the cannon? So the question of the council's was what is canonical? What is canonical Buddhism? What is the measurement by which we determine what is Buddhist? That's the big question of those councils suddenly put those back up there. And basically out of that movie, Out of those councils, you have the emergence of three different kinds, one sort of after the other, the first, which would be called Tara Votto, Buddhism is like the oldest form, and it means like the elders way. So and that's one model of Buddhism, then you have later when the develops called the Maha Yana Buddhism, which is like the Buddhism of the, of the masses. And then there's the Yama Buddhism, which is more like a mystical version of Buddhism. So those are the big three. So what is terawatt? I'm going to put it up here in just a second. Okay, so they're going to be up here, but I just want you to know that that that's the outworking of these questions, right? And you're going to see this and other traditions to especially you'll see this in Christianity and Islam. These questions of like which directions things go and so forth in Christianity that becomes Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism, and then Protestantism, those are the three big branches. In Islam, you're going to see that with Sufi Sunnis and Shiites. And you can see that that's but also by the way, the reason of certain conflicts in certain geographical region. happened to be between that dispute over who the inheritor is. I mean, that's the basic idea of ISIS right? Is that they think they are the inheritor of Muhammad's vision, and it generates a certain way of looking at the canon, right and what is considered canonical within Islam. So the first one is called terrified of Buddhism and terrified of Buddhism is ruggedly individualistic, meaning that the way it looks at it is that Buddha is not a special divine figure. He's gone. But his teachings are important. And what we need to do is relentlessly individually press ourselves towards them, the terracotta tradition would have a higher view of the monk and the nun that would be the males and females who devote themselves to the Buddhist teachings and what they consider to be canonical. They have a particular that it's heavily monetarist, and they focus a lot on the tsonga's. I don't know if you remember this from our earlier lecture. But the song is are the communities of, of religious adherence, like the community of monks, what you would call a monastery or what you would call a convent, the groups of people that devote themselves to it. But the key for Tara vodka is, it's non. It's not very theological. It's not like we worship a Buddha who has gone it's much more a focus on the rugged practices and it keeps somewhat of a hierarchy in place, meaning the monks and the nuns are able to get closer to Nirvana than the other people because they are uniquely devoted and uniquely committed to the meditative practices. This is the oldest form of Buddhism. They also have a series of texts I don't know if I put the Pali Canon appear or not because I didn't observe it them.
The poly poly PLI is the language. The Pali Canon, is the group of texts that the terracotta monks wrote or developed after the Buddha teaches for a while the monks decide After he's gone, they decided to put his teachings to writing. Okay? Prior to that it's very much a group of wandering monks. When they put them together, the methodology was something like this, they would write them on leaves and then put them in baskets as separate collections and units. So literally that word should be taught to be Taka means or tip Taka would mean three baskets. And they basically represent the three main sections of the Pali Canon, which would be the terracotta cannon, like what is Buddhist teaching in these three sections. And these three sections are all like, basically, disciplines of the Buddhist life, discourses of the Buddha himself, and what those philosophical things are above and beyond the Dharma. Remember, the term Dharma means like religious duty, or command or whatever. It's basically the religious teaching. So the trophy taco means has the sections, what it what are the disciplines of the Buddhist life. That's one section. The next section is called our sutras. And they are teachings of the Buddha like oral teachings of the Buddha himself. Even though it's hard to determine whether they are things the Buddha actually said, or didn't say, you all have grown up in a world probably heavily influenced by Judeo Christian religion. And you've probably some her point heard a debate about whether Jesus did say this, or it was just the writers who made it up, right. That problem is not unique to Christianity. That problem is a part and parcel of other religious traditions because the distance between the authoritative figure and the writing is sometimes far. This is one of the reasons Islam claims such high views of Revelation is because in their minds, the prophet is doing the writing. He doesn't go around teaching, and then somebody writes it down after he dies. He's the writer. Do you see why they would have a higher view of his teaching because they would think they're Not a lot of distance between the written and the oral.
Does that make sense?
So, but here you have it is that you have these tribit Taka are these terracotta monks putting this together and it's the most full form of early Buddhist teachings that scholars know about. And they're the three sections disciplines discourses, and above means like the philosophical reflections that's just beyond just what to do and what he said, like kind of a, what does it mean? type thing. So that's why I put above it's not a really good word there. I didn't want to put philosophy in it run off the side of the page. Can I go for it? Yay or nay? Yay. Okay. The second form that really grows and this is the one you probably know most about is Maha Yana Buddhism. It's also called the great vehicle and it is basically Buddhism for the masses. It's it is more celestial and more theological in nature, but that what I mean is, the Buddha here is treated more like a divine figure. I'm not saying that they sit around and worship the Buddha. But rather than They think of the Buddha as more important is not just one character amongst many, he's a critical one. So much so that inside of Mahatma Buddhism, there are some thoughts that the Buddha is like it has transformed into a celestial state, and is now on behalf of the people who are Buddhists trying to create a pure and great land of dwelling where they will dwell and happiness a kind of heavenly state. So it's a little bit more supernatural if you want to use that word, even though that well, even though that's bad, where did nobody told me that was there? I know your tricks. Anyway, so it's a little more supernatural, right? So that's what I want you to get here but it's also very flexible for people in multiple conditions and the terracotta tradition you need to kind of be the ascetic. You need to be the By the way, you know what the word ascetic means? Yes, no. ASCETICC sit again. Right deprivation You could say an athlete is acidic. acidic esky says just means like sort of self deprivation for a higher goal. So sometimes and this is important to note that asceticism is not just about beating yourself, but sometimes it's about activating your senses. Do so deprive yourself right? In the idea would be like if you go to the wilderness for 40 days to not eat, you're going to hallucinate. And sometimes that's exactly what the monk wants to activate a part of the brain that's not deprived, because it's too busy thinking about sugars and carbohydrates. So in asceticism, it's not just I don't want this, it's also i do want that. But in Tirana Buddhism, this has to be the road to get to these Buddhist teachings, and Mahabharata, Buddhism, not so much. It's much more amenable to the everyday person. You remember how in Hinduism there were the three Margot's the three ways you can travel three different paths or three different Yogi's in order to achieve Moshe you could, there was the the nano and then there was can see me in my mind's eye. The karma was the first one. I can't think of a second. Anyway. Point being OO during the Gupta era, what's it called? what's the word I'm looking for? is a word for devotion. Anyway, it was a devotional one. Sorry, I had to do that for myself. Basically saying here this like the Maha Jaan is a more flexible and gives multiple routes in order to achieve this. It's more for the masses. It's more expansive and more all inclusive. For you know, for terawatt, I'm saying it's less Ascetic. Yeah, it doesn't mean that it's not concerned about not doing things or whatever. It just means that that's not the chief road. It's much more fancier than that. Now these three terms right here, Mahabharata Buddhism holds that basically that the Buddha's body has three states. Okay, so it has an earthly state, which is like its accidental properties, its shape, its size. It has a blissful state, which is a little bit beyond its earthly particulars. And then it's true state, which is more just pure substance. Okay? The point here being that for in my IANA Buddhism, the Buddha can have a presence in this world or, or for the Marianna Buddhist, because it takes on a celestial truth like state of mind by celestial I mean, you know, heavenly right, and sort of a glowing or perfect figure. Because Mahabharata Buddhism allows for the inner penetration of those different things as opposed to over there in the Teradata tradition, which is not as much concerned with the celestial. So making sense. You know what I mean by that, okay, you can tell me No.
I'm gonna skip that. It's the Lotus Sutra, by the way, it's like a sutras being discourses.
So I know you think Kama Sutra
sutras just mean discourses and that's what are part of the Pali Canon, which means like the things that the Buddha has said, and in my Jaan of Buddhism, my Jaan of Buddhism doesn't necessarily just leave the Buddhist teachings with the Pali Canon and the the three baskets that were in terror of optimism. I know he's can be confusing, but let's see if I can explain it this way. So over here, over here and terrible I should have done this visually. I'm a visual guy. I don't know why I didn't do it that way. Over here in terracotta Buddhism, things are heavily ascetic, heavily individual. Right. And you have the Pali Canon. Over here in my IANA Buddhism, right, you have the poly canon plus other stuff.
Right? It's a little bit more celestial in nature.
Right? And it's for the masses
Okay? The Scott the the Lotus Sutra is one of these, it's one of the x extra teachings or the further documents or the, the more. And it's basically like an ethical guideline that's used by Mahatma Buddhists sort of paint a picture of what to do and how to behave. It's just a very famous, famous teaching. So I wanted to put it up there just so you knew. My Anna Buddhism also is heavily Incorporated, but that what we mean it's not as individual like I can help you achieve your business goals, I can help you achieve the road towards Nirvana. So unlike the ascetic way of the terror of audit, it's much more people are helping each other, which is where you see the emergence of the idea of the boat is up via ohana Buddhism Buddhism is like a special teacher who has achieved a state of Nirvana or enlightenment or awakening, and therefore has committed to helping other people find it as well. That can mean that the person is actually living or not living. So in some cases in Buddhism, you're worshipping a divine like buddies figure that has already passed over. But they're making themselves available to people in order to teach them how to get there. Or it could be a person that's earthly dwelling, who is committed to that kind of life as well. So but is advise a certain special kind of teacher who's helping enable other Buddhist in order to achieve that. There are two other kinds of to note here. So you've heard of Zen Buddhism, right? Yes or no? Yes. No. Oh, my gosh, Zen gardens like those little sand gardens. That's Zen. Right. So, to two movements emerge out of my hi Anna Buddhism's What's going to sound like these are different branches. They're not, they're just two ways of like kind of approaching the high end of Buddhism. Because my high into Buddhism is kind of celestial. There is a group of people that hold to this notion that the Buddha is almost like preserving and creating a perfect world in which the Buddhist can dwell. It's called the Pure Land idea. The other one is almost the exact opposite of that. Zen, on the other hand, is about letting go of any rational way of looking at the world and embracing the paradox of existence. For example, one of the famous phrases of Zen Buddhists is like, if you find the Buddha kill him, basically, which means like, you can't tie yourself down to any rational thing or any figure who's going to do the teaching, or one of the one of the things that's listed in your book is
show me a one hand clapping
Right. It's a paradoxical thing. One hand can't clap, right?
The Zen per the Zen Buddhist is trying to embrace the paradoxical nature of all things and embrace the ways of Buddhism as engaging in that very quagmire of existence and finding some kind of peacefulness in that. Right. So you can see how the movement of sand, things like that is a completely futile exercise. Sand ever stays in one place. It's a bunch of tiny little particles. So there's something oddly therapeutic about doing something that's completely few tile,
because he just stepping in, it's gone. Right?
And so Zen Buddhism grows at this again, Mahabharata, Buddhism is a little bit more philosophical. It's a little bit more celestial, so forth. But the last one vagina, vagina, Yana is the one that you associate with the Dalai Lama. After terrified of Buddhism, Buddhism grows, this one starts to develop Around the eighth century, and particularly in the area of Tibet, it's basically Buddhism making its way back to India. Right? So the Buddhist tradition grows out of Hinduism, and then sort of makes its way back to India in this form, the basic bedrock of the vagina model or the Tantra, if you remember all the way back in Hinduism, there were tantric teachings and the tantric teachings basically suggested that the different stuff in reality could come together. Like if you were a high ranking person, a low ranking person, you could pass into one another. Or if you were this or you were that because between you was some kind of shared energy, right? For the Hindu it would have been Brahma or Brahman, right? The idea being that everything is part of the same stuff. So the tantric idea was all these different things in reality, male, female, high, low, black, white, whatever, can kind of blend into one another. tantric practices were kind of mystical and kind of odd, you had to have a special knowledge of how that energy worked in order for the two different things to come together. And that really heavily influenced vagina Buddhism. And what I mean by that is, the idea is that there is energy and everything and we can sort of manipulate and control that energy. This is going to be a comical and silly and unfair example to anyone who has a vagina Buddhist. But think of Dr. Strange.
The movie, this guy,
that notice that the leader has where's that Tibetan like monk, shaved head, he comes from this, right? They're drawing on this tradition that somehow you can kind of manipulate and convert the interior energy. Now you're never going to see the Dalai Lama walk around and do some kind of weird movement like that. It's not like a literal like physics type thing. It's something much more implicit and secretive and mystical than that, but that's the tradition comes from and there's a lot of complex rituals and things like that to participate in order to access this. Do you know the term is esoteric ESOTRIC esoteric means like only a few people know it. It's kind of complicated and weird, right? So if I'm sitting around with a bunch of people who know a ton about sports and I start talking about sabermetrics, which is a baseball, statistician, sort of thing, it's esoteric because only a few specialist know about it. Or if you're sitting around with some business majors, and they're all talking about stock exchanges or stuff, like it's alienating, because you're not part of the conversation. That's when it's esoteric. Industry going to Buddhism tends to this kind of thinking, this tantric idea builds on some of that esoteric stuff. The term llama is a term for teacher. This is where you see this is where you see the Dalai Lama, right? The idea that this is a special teacher, people who can teach the tantric ways, know the tantric ways and it's also where you see this.
Mandela's right or however you prefer to
pronounce it. You ever seen these before? They're like the circular drawings because they're meditative st Looking like things that allow you to sort of see into the energy of things and it's sort of a cosmic Graham of sorts, a picture of the world, I don't know if you remember all the way back all the way back in Native American traditions, there was painting was an important part of reflecting the cosmic way of things. So, this is not a new thing necessarily, but it is you is what you know of this comes from this part of Buddhism. So, the key here for all of this has been that when you have a central figure, that central figure disappears, it tends to let this these traditions sort of expand in multiple different directions, because the question is what is canonical? What is not? What is the true cheat teaching and what is not? And how did those different sects connect to one another? Make sense?
Any questions about that stuff?
All right, let me tell you a couple logistical things will get out of here.
Let me turn this off.