2:02PM Oct 28, 2019
Alright, I can adjust the gain down where I want it. Okay. All right. So, uh, we're going to go ahead and jump in normally on a Tuesday we read. But I got a little bit behind last week with my Monday, Wednesday, Friday class. So I postponed the reading, what we'll do is if we do read this week will read on Thursday instead, most likely, we won't read this week, the Clifford gets reading is good, but I don't think it's necessary for us to have it's very similar to some of the other ones that we've had. So I'm probably going to skip it. And we'll look at Rudolph auto next week. But for now, I want to be able to talk about Hinduism today and kind of kind of give you finish out the sort of framework of Hinduism and then on Thursday, spend time talking about stage two of the essay. I will talk a little bit about stage to the essay at the end of this hour and grades and markings and things like that. So don't let me forget. What I'm going to try to do is I'm going to try to spend about 45 minutes talking about this and give us 15 to 30 minutes to talk about other stuff. That way. We don't have to spend a I'll go through this fairly quickly. But that's kind of framework for today. Does that make sense? So my syllabus is always a general framework, I've always said structure time, not content, right. So we have this amount of time, this is our framework, we'll work within it, and see where it goes from there. And then at the end, I want to share a few personal matters. And then we can move forward from there at work. Any quick questions?
Before we press on?
once, going twice,
okay, so I'm recording live will, should be available by the end of the day today, if not tomorrow, so that you can get back to that later. The next exam anyway, is next weekend after Buddhism. So two weekends from now, I guess maybe next weekend, I can't remember. So the Buddhism Hindus, chap, Hindu sections will go together and the last two will be Christianity and Islam. So kind of makes sense that those pieces all kind of go together. Okay, so here's the Hindu mindset. I'm going to continue to talk about the Hindu mindset and give us much of the framework as I can. But I said last time we talked about Hinduism. Its enormous. Right, its enormous, both because it's very old. And because it's kind of all embracing. It's welcoming, open to a variety of different religious perspectives. And that can that can be folded in this doesn't mean it's like the chief paralyzed religion. It just means that since it doesn't focus on a specific deity, it has a wide range of possibilities of how to express the Hindu desire. Does this make sense? Everybody good so far. Okay. So last time I talked about the fact that most of the early stages of Hinduism were rooted in this political situation of the Indus Valley, do you remember this? So particular geographical area and northwest of India, the Indus Valley, you have people that there's early civilization there, you have area and folks coming down, migrating into that area, they blend together the area and folks bring with them two major pieces, and those major pieces are number one, the Sanskrit language and to the VEDA, right the text of their ancient religious practice everybody good with that so far. So they bring that in, and so the early stages of Hinduism is really this question of, you know, how do we recycle and re engender the political society, keep everything going, keep everything stable, keep everything orderly, keep everything pure. And so sacrifices a big part of that all those sorts of things shouldn't sound unusual. And then you see a transformation occur in early Hinduism, you see this development of a more philosophical approach to what it means to recycle reality over and over
Okay, because I feel like I'm racing ahead and you all are like, sort of, okay, looking on your faces. I can't tell if I've got a body or not, okay. It's not a bad thing. I just want to make sure that I'm not pushing ahead too quickly without making sure everybody's with me. Yes. Okay. All right. So, so, you start to see transformation, right. You see a transformation from a very real world practical kind of early Vedic religious practice with sacrifice and keeping status quo, with the Divine reality, to a question of a philosophical question of what is the nature of divine reality? What does it mean for it to loop? And what does it mean to be reborn and re die over and over? You start to see the emergence of these concepts. When this happens when we move from the cosmic, keeping the world orderly to the personal, we, this coincides with the emergence of the upon a shots, which are another segment of text that go along with the VEDA. Okay. Think of it. I said this last time, right? You and Eve you grew up in Judeo Christian Christian tradition, not that you are, but that you've come from that world that you've been exposed to it from an old New Testaments type thing. So think of this as a development of the older text.
is where we started to see the emergence of this eternal wandering, we saw this, this emergence of the idea of karma or efficacy and this idea of Moshe which means anybody.
This one is related to this one.
Right is to get out of it. Then you see an transformation for the longest time, these ancient rituals and these ancient religious practices are only the property of the high class. Right? And that means the Brahmins are the priests, the people at the top, they're supposed to keep the world orderly. They're the ones who do these rituals. But you start to see a transition around the same time. So not only moving from cosmic Hinduism to personal Hinduism, you see a transition from only the Brahmins get to do it denies everybody's responsibility to be devoted to the Hindu way. Does that make sense? So the box t this word box, it means devotion. This is stuff we've already talked about, right? I'm, I'm recuperating it just so that we can make sure that we're in this in the same groove. I don't know if I mentioned Tantra last time or not. But it is one way that you, you see a couple of transformations. These two are transformations and how the Hindu let's call it religious identity is practice. One is through devotion.
And you start to see the subset
of Hindu practice, like the Tantra, this would be the notion that if the world remember the world was divided from this cosmic man, cut up into pieces, disassembled, reassembled, right. And therefore the world has this kind of structure to it. Well, if Brahman is in fact the unity of all things, then that would mean that the low and the high are no different. Right? that this could co mingle with this, which could co mingle with this, which is kind of the idea of the Tantra, the tantric arts, you've heard of this is associated with sexuality, you've ever heard this term. And that's because it would have been the same notion that two people from different classes could engage one another's bodies in such a way to exemplify or demonstrate or show that kind of union of Brahman. So we'll talk about Brahman in just a second. But that's the basic idea. So you're seeing changes and what Hinduism looks like. One of the major changes that faces is colonization from the British Empire. And this is where you see Gandhi's emergence as Gandhi is a basically a freedom fighter as it were, I'll be it in a passive way for the Hindu people. And one of the things that Gandhi is very famous for is wanting to sort of reform this orderly system from top
to bottom. Everybody good?
Yeah, can I change pages? Okay. All right.
You also see the rise of Hindu nationalism. I mentioned this last time. So the question was like, what makes us Hindu in the midst of the colonial question like Brits are here and kind of doing their thing what makes us us? Alright, moving forward. So to say the word theology for Hinduism is probably a bad term, because theology is more of a
and more discussion. discreet being,
For the Hindu, the question of what is God is more of a question of what is the divine reality? What is the way of things much like the ancient Chinese traditions, and so forth? It's not it's not concerned like with the Shinto sort of way, like, this is our land. This is our people, we got to know which gods are sort of organizing the way we do life. It's not that it's more like a question of what are the the subterranean powers and forces like the CI of the ancient Chinese tradition? Does that make sense? But it's not identified, identified as a single thing. It's the main problem that Hinduism is sort of constantly addressing is this relationship between oneness and manliness? Vita already talked about this. Did we talk about E Pluribus Unum last time? Okay, so he pluribus unum is on your money means from the many one. It's the same question we have about democracy. We all vote together, but we're all distinctive. So we have a unity and we have a plurality at the same time. And Hinduism is really concerned with This because their chief reality is called Brahman. Brahman is this overarching unity of things. It's this overarching nature of being. Okay, this is a difficult concept. So if you haven't explored things philosophically before, let's see if we can put it in terms that you might be more familiar with. First of all, let me give you the philosophical expression. When someone says being cool being Kwang means like is Latin for like is our as being as being so there's a difference between being and beings. Right? You are a being in the theory is if I say you are there are you are a person you have being you have existence you have something but that thing that gives you being is not you, you partake in it. Be following me so far. A great way to describe it is life. you partake in life. You don't have Life insofar as that you don't own it, otherwise nobody around you would be living, but you are a life.
Right? So for them,
Brahman is that condition which gives everything being it is being, quote being it, you can't even name it. It's the ground and the condition for things which exist, whether those are ideas, or feelings, or souls, or IR heads or feet, or rivers and so on. And so Brahman is really elusive, and the own In short, there's an attempt for the Hindu tradition to describe Brahman as being consciousness or bliss.
A kind of perfect being in itself.
But this doesn't mean you stand outside it.
For the Hindu you stand within it. For the Hindu You are a part of it. And I don't know if I've put this word up there yet, but the word I'm going to be using a lot is automation. At MAN, mon, and it means like your soul. It doesn't mean that the parents you give to me it doesn't mean what you are right here sitting in this room. It means whatever that thing is that persists from you from day to day today today, tomorrow you will look different 10 years from now you'll look different. But your mind continues. And so in their minds, you ought man you're on at some level is part of this Brahman is is connected to this realm. The question is, how and in what way? And is it all oneness? Or is it all meaningless? And how does the meaningless of all these different things connected to the unity of the one thing, whatever it is, and the one thing is elusive in terms of naming, so you'll get this apathetic tradition and apathetic means not speaking. Nettie means not this sort of describe Brahman to describe the divine Reality of Things to say it's not this table. It's not that person, it's not those mountains. It's not that tree. It's not this. It's not that. So in the medieval tradition, we would call that the VN negative as a way of negation. But in this word, it's called in this world, we would use the term Nettie. It's not this, it's not that, but the closest you'll see is describing it as being consciousness or bliss. And you're going to see this tripartite, this three fold tendency in Hinduism is very strong. To have three things that describe something
Okay, because there's a lot,
right. Here's a great example of the three fold attempt to describe
This sound arm is made up of three letters, the first one which means waking, the second one, which means sleeping with dreaming. The third one just means sleeping and not dreaming like a deep state,
And all together, they describe together they form a union of which is broken. Waking, sleeping, with waking, dreaming, sleeping, think of them that way, waking, dreaming, sleeping. And together they described the unity of Brahman and all things. It is, in their minds a primordial sound. And I have told you that language and the language and the concepts of what makes divinity divinity, or what make a God of God or what make a divine reality divine reality are closely connected. So in this case, this is like a breath. You've heard that chant. Right? You've heard that sound. So this is an attempt to express the deep rhythms in the deep air, which is the divine reality of such these primordial sounds. This is what the Hindu is trying to describe this only one model. This is the thing about Hinduism is that this doesn't reduce In Japan, it doesn't reduce to a singular model. It doesn't mean like this is the chief name. It's an expression of this same concept. It's very much Hinduism is very much okay with there being a plurality of things, and a singularity of things jumping. Before creation, before reality primordial would be like, first things first in order. Sure, you could say yeah, primordial would just mean first in order. Literally, that's what the word means. Could be it depends on which religious tradition you're talking about. If you're, you know, like the Shinto the primordial forces or gods the commie if you're in the, you know, could be anything. Yeah. It could be Blyton's darkness, you know, whatever. forces of chaos, blah, blah, blah. Lots of different stuff. Everybody good. All right. Let me let me check my phone just to make sure everything's still recording properly.
Looks like we're okay.
Okay, that's what I make sure I don't like to get to that point where I realize it's all could put
the try Murti are these three people.
And so what I'm showing you here is there's a centralized idea of a divine reality. And there are multiple ways to express it. One of the ways to express it are these three characters Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. These are three different manifestations of the Divine behavior, the divine reality, just like being consciousness or bliss, just like arm and just like these three stages, creating reality preserving reality and dissolving reality. So what you're seeing here is the three Enos pattern in an effort to describe or an effort to engage Brahman, but none of these three function as a direct, parallel. This is not the God this is not the God this is not the God this is not the God they are just different routes or different ways of thinking about or Describing or engaging this divine reality. So what you'll see in some Hindu practices is that Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, they may be worshiped in shrines and things like that. But the Hindu mindset is not that this is the God who created me. It's rather This is a God that is a part of this divine reality. And this God gives me access to that divine reality. And that's completely open for Hinduism and available and welcomed. You also see that these divine realities and these divine entities are not separated from daily life. They're not separated from the world. So in the Hindu tradition, it's not unusual, or it's not even uncommon to see these divine things people beings, God's whatever expressed in different kinds of images, one of those images being like kinds of animals that got half God half animal type thing, or you've seen the or the image of the God is kind of contorted. Right, two hands up here, two hands down here. You've seen those before. Right. And all those images are to express the complexity of Brahman, or to express the complexity of whatever that deity is in relationship to Brahman. So have this hand here, this symbolizes one thing, this hand here symbolizes one thing, this hand here symbolizes another, or, for example, it's an upper torso of a divinity and a lower torso of an animal and that supposed to express something about that divine reality. And it also these images are important because they bring Brahman and they bring the gods near, they bring them close and make them imminent. You can engage with the deities because they are present in these images. They are present in these things. It's what another traditions we might call iconic graphic. That making sense. I feel like I'm just doing truly lecturing right now like I'm just spilling off information all just staring at me, everybody okay?
No questions, your comments or thoughts thus far.
That's a good question honestly, honestly don't know.
You there are branches of like, let's call them for lack of a better term denominations of Hinduism that our worship Vishnu and Shiva, not so much Brahma, but they have certain icons that are associated with them or certain images or so zoom but I don't know if a specific animal which brings up the next term actually, which is avatar, I think is coming next. Yeah. Is that in these traditions, these gods or goddesses, Shiva has a wife and she is a goddess who is worshipped. I don't know if we'll mention her detail she's mentioned in the book, but they can have material manifestations and those are called avatars. avatars of when these gods enter into space and time. So, for example, for Vishnu, some of the most, the two most popular ones are Rama and Krishna. So if you hear the names Rama or Krishna, those are supposed to be like incarnations of Vishnu. Now, if you're thinking for my essay, I'm struggling to find a digital overlap. I mean, for God's sakes, avatars. I mean, this is the Yeah, this is the Sanskrit term. Right. And we've adopted it, interestingly enough in our digital spheres to describe our personal manifestations in different social networks, which is pretty interesting in its own right. But that's what we have. You're going to see this come back up in just a minute when we talk about Hindu texts. Okay. I've done a lot in 15 minutes. So, I'll make sure everybody's okay. And it doesn't make sense. Okay. All right. Oh, last word here on this list is. Okay, so think of the word, Maya as the word illusion. But think of the word illusion as like magic trick. Right? So if I perform an illusion, it has a two fold implication. One, it shows something, it brings something into existence. But the other implication is that it's a kind of deception. Are you following? This is the term that the Hindu would have used for the, in the old VEDA, the old texts, when the priests describe the world coming into being. The thinking is that whatever divine energy, whatever divine force brought the world into what it was, whatever the gods were doing in order for this to happen was Powered by Maya. But that Maya also knows that not only founds the world but creates an obstacle for understanding Brahman. Because if Brahman is a Divine unity, everything is one, everything goes together. Right? If Brahman is a Divine unity, then all the differences I see in space and time create an obstacle for understanding that unity. Does that make sense to you? Like if I think mean, literally, it's so hard for me to think of you all as having the same atomic components. Because what I see visually are hugely different manifestations. Right? But if I say from a physics standpoint, you're nothing but distributed energy and one day you'll just be redistributed energy. You might say that out loud, but you don't really believe that in the way you're living. Right? And so if I said from a physics standpoint, everything is created from a distribution of energy It moves in different areas and consolidates, but then it floats back into itself. Well, then that would suggest that one of the very thing that creates the world and separates everything out is the same thing that makes it hard to see that they come back together. Are you following me? Because this is densely philosophical, right? And complex.
Like the the creation of the world. So Maya is like a two fold issue. That's why I say illusion is good, because it's like a trick, that it's the energy and the trick that the gods used in order to like, bring the world's being but it's also that illusion, which keeps us from seeing that all things are one. So it has it's a it's a two fold issue. And you have to be able to wrestle, you have to be able to conceive of why it's difficult to perceive unity, we think in fundamentally fundamental separation. You're there, I'm here, there's physical distance between us. But if we reduce this to atomic components, and quarks and strings, any of you all familiar with these terms? Okay? So if we get down to the most basic level of atomic theory, what we find out is you're not so different than me. You just, in fact, my electron to electrons can mean this in two different places at the same time, bizarre stuff. And so at our base level, we find out that we are all unity, we're all some kind of distribution of energy. Now, I'm not saying that to refuse the religious tradition, of course, I'm saying that that's how you have to think of it then the question is, why are we different? Why are you there? And I'm over here. And how long will you be over there? And I'll be over here. Right? Those are the kinds of questions starts to surface. That's what the Hindu mind is concerned with. How do those two things work out that there's such a plurality to stuff but it also should be unified? Well, my tricks us into not being able to See the unity of things, so we sort of have to overcome it. Does that make sense? Or no?
Okay. Once going twice.
Okay, so I just want to briefly, I don't want to spend any time on this one, other than to say that those two capitalized words are two different branches of Hinduism. This one would be non dual lyst. And this is dualistic. The question about Brahman, this is the key question. Is that it? Are we all part of Brahman and therefore everything is radically unified? Or is there a dualism is there's a kind of, there's Brahman in there is us, is there a distinction between Brahman and Ottoman? Okay, the key word here is Ottoman again, what do I do with it? What do I do with that marker? You can see what I do with that marker.
There it is. Okay. So
yeah, that'll work. Where did you put it? You'll find it there. Is everything unified? Or is there some kind of distinction? Right? And so Brahman is the whole or the unity of things. And not mine is my, you know, little soul or my, you know, whatever. The question is, are these two things the same thing? Are they different things? This group says they're not different. This thing says they're different
would be this one.
This Yes, yes. That there's a separation between things.
And that it's that separation is important.
So that's all I really want you to know here. These right here are just different people Shankar remind you are those there's different people in those traditions. These are different models of that tradition. I don't think we need to go into it in great detail. The goal here is to see the hint the the goal has always been to kind of see the whole system together. Whether it's not to pick apart different elements but rather to kind of get a glimpse of the way the Hindu mind thinks and the way the Hindu social practice works anybody good yep All right, I'm gonna press forward we'll skip that one. Okay let me let me let me do this if I if those are all up there at the same time you'll just right the whole time not listened to me at all. Drives me bonkers. I don't know why I didn't fix those to begin with. Okay.
Chica back up real quick.
Okay, again, these the golden with all of this is then if I were you were us or We are confined to the realm of wandering in samsara. If we are destined for rebirth and recycling, then the Hindu practice the Hindu devotion, the Bach T is to try to figure out a way out of that. In the old Vedic tradition, the way to work within that was just to perform sacrifice and keep the world working the way that it was. With the Punisher was the question became how do we sort of work our way out. And that became a distinction between my phenomenal self, my parents, and my deep self, or my deep soul, or whatever you want to call it called Ottoman and where it is supposed to go, and what it is supposed to do, and where it is supposed to proceed. So the first step of liberation is to recognize the distinction between these two is to understand that what we're trying to do is move on through samsara in order to achieve Moshe or liberation. So you've seen these words Before and these words all reflect this practice. We're wondering, so we need to be concerned with the cause and effect of our actions. We need to be concerned with our duty. Dharma is duty or religious, sort of devote devotion. Moshe is liberation. The interesting thing about Hinduism though is this. Think about the concept. If the concept is concerned about oneness and meanness, then that means there isn't just one way to get to the one. It by virtue of its own concept, there are multiple ways to get to it. If everything is one that in some sense, every way is a way. So there are multitude of different avenues you can see why it's radically open ended. And it's difficult to systematically describe. There's ways and the paths in order to get back in order to achieve most are called Margus. And that means path but you we don't usually use that word. We use the word yoga Yoga means to yoke or unite. Margus means paths. And traditionally there are three paths to achieve Moshe, there is the karmic path, the boxy path and the Nona I don't know if I'm pronouncing that right but we're going to go with it. And these are an order of severity. The path of karma is, okay. So think of it like this. These three things offer everybody in society a route. If you're working real hard, and you are you don't have time to go to temple and you don't have time to read certain stuff. Your path is karma. you're focused on doing the right stuff, not the bad stuff, receiving the good effects, not the bad effects. You're concerned about, you know, keeping things orderly, so your pathway is conducive to your lifestyle. The box the way is the devotion. You pick a deity, you pick a route, and you are devoted that God you have a shrine in your house. You don't do Every day you do it when you need to. And you that's your route because you're able to access it that way. The Janata is the most rigorous of them. And that would be more like the scholar or the student.
The one who thinks on these things contemplates them.
Karma is more like my law. I just want to focus on the effects of my action. With I'm doing the good stuff in the bad stuff in American life would call that being an ethical person. The karmic the karma is more just like performing the ethics of doing things the right way. The box to way is more of this devotional, and there's Nana is more of a studious, focus, contemplative investigative way.
So it makes sense.
Okay, again, Margot's means path. Yoga means unite or yoke. Yes, man.
Yeah, I mean, we use that term all the time we use it as a catch all phrase for saying somebody shouldn't have done that. Absolutely. Yes, Miss black yoke, or unite to connect to it. What you know is yoga in a physical practice is just a subset or a form of like bending and adjusting the body in order to attune oneself to the unity of the body. Right. So the idea is I know where my foot is over here when I'm stretching it out. That is, I know where my hand is over here, but I'm stretching it out. You can see how that fits with the Hindu mindset of one in many Enos like being able to connect the Ottoman with the plurality of my body in space and time. So Yoga is our different ways and practices in order to bring those things into communion with one another.
Good to go.
Alright, so look Let's talk about the OK, so we've looked at the divine reality itself, like what's the overarching principle? Although it's hard to pin down, we've looked at what the sort of suggestion is for personal behavior within our personal duty within that divine reality like you're supposed to achieve liberation. And now the question is where does all this come from? And it comes from a variety of texts. There are a lot of texts within the Hindu tradition. There's a segment in your book that has a little chart that will show you kind of the main two distinctions. But I'll tell you what, those are really quickly. There are these two terms, surety and Smitty? I'll say Smart TV. I don't know if that's the correct Nick Princeton pronunciation we're going to go with it. mean basically two different things revealed on the one hand, true team means revealed or heard, like it's what the ancient priests of the VEDA heard wherever they heard it from. And Smitty is like handed down or traditional soda us more modern religious parlance, we might say one is revealed in one is customary. But both are binding. binding is a bad word. But they are both influential and so far as that they describe the understanding of the Hindu Rhea of the Divine reality Hindus concept of divine reality. Those are the two main distinctions. Everybody good means like received or handed down. So it's like our word tradition comes from the Latin root tra del rey TRADRE, which means to hand. Literally, tradition means to do this, to hand it to you, to pass it to you. And so it doesn't mean old stodgy things that are written in coded books that you're supposed to obey I mean, something we passed to each other. And so the first term is more like divinely revealed in the second one is passed along the Vedas of the old texts, that the Areas bring with them. And they also include the developments in the you punish odds. So these are considered revealed texts, these two are the big ones. These two are the big ones. We're not going to talk about every single text, I just want to point out the ones that you'll hear about the most. So if you are engaging a Hindu person in the next 10 years, you'll be able to kind of get a grasp of how to associate with their own social experience, by understanding how these texts work with them, and the two that are will be considered their sort of heard texts would be the Vedas and the upon a shots. But in the traditional are handed down, you also have some poems, and you have epics and you have stories. Two of the most famous ones to the most famous stories or epics. One of them is called the Ramayana. And the other one is called the Mahabharata. But it's not listed up here because the Bhagavad Gita is part of it. It's a lot of clunky words, right? The Ramayana is an epic when I say an epic, do you know what I mean by that? Like Homer's Odyssey, so it's a grand story of a heroic adventure. The Ramayana tells a story like that. And the other one called the Mahabharata also tells a story like that. But inside the Mahabharata, there is a subsection in there called the Bhagavad Gita, which is very famous because it's a section of the text that's very influential to the Hindu mind. And you'll see why in just a second. So let's talk about the Ramayana. In the story of the Ramayana, you have this demon. And this demon wants protection from other gods. And so it asks a certain set of powerful deities, maybe it's, I don't remember who, because these stories are complex, keep them all in front of me, asks this permission, I want you to just get the idea asks permission from the gods to be sort of invincible, to be undefeatable from other deities. So it's asking gods to be protected from other lesser gods of sorts, and they grant that authority but what this demon forgot To do was asked for protection against humans. And so the story switches over to a king, a king who has a series of sons, one of those sons is named Rama. Rama is an avatar of Vishnu. In the story, Rama is about to ascend the throne, where this king of his follow the king, and one of the wives mothers decides they don't want Rama to be a part of it. So they basically get Rama kicked out into the forest so that her son can rise to the to the throne. So what you have now is a demon. Over here who's partly invincible, but not completely against humans, have Rama booted into the forest and away from his throne.
When he's booted into the forest, at the same time, what happens is his demon comes and takes his wife, Sita, Rama, his wife. And so while Rama is in the forest, he pines away for his loss, love and he worries that the demon has defiled her So he gets together with some like animals basically who are divine forces. And they go and they storm the demons castle and they take the wife back, and they beat the demon. And Rama is Vishnu. The whole story is intended to kind of tell a tale of balance and power and loyalty and fidelity to family and so on and so on. The point that I want to make here is it doesn't suggest a whole bunch of philosophical stuff about the divine reality, but it tells more about kind of the relationship of the Divine reality to the world in which we dwell. That's how epic stories work. The second story the Mahabharata is focused around dueling cousins. There's a set of cousins over here that wants to throw instead of cousins over here that want to throw in there warring with each other. These are both like royal families. And Xena is the is like the leader of one of them and decides that he's really want to fight and kill his kin, so stressed about it. Because he's afraid it's bad karma because it's not it's Going to have a bad effect. And he wants to achieve Moshe he doesn't want to. He doesn't want to do the wrong thing. And so he summons up a charioteer and that charioteer, his name is Krishna, who is Vishnu? And Krishna basically stops and talks to him. And that conversation is the Bhagavad Gita. in that conversation, Krishna basically explains Georgina, that, don't worry, you can still do this deed, and you won't receive the bad effects of karma. Because the only time you do that is then when you perform a deed because you want the fruits of its action. So for example, it would be like saying, Yeah, you can hate the effects of money, you can still make money as long as you don't love the outcome. If you're in your religious tradition, you said it was bad to have a lot of wealth. There, basically Krishna would be saying, hey, it's okay to have that job. Yeah, so it makes 100 grand here, just give it away. Right, you can still do the good thing. Even if it has effects you don't want so long as you're not chasing after the fruits of the thing that you're doing. So what this suggests is this, one of the key steps in Moshe or liberation is renunciation, revoking, rejecting the fruits I don't want is giving them away. It's putting them aside. And that's embedded in this Bhagavad Gita story, which is why it's so popular helps make sense of, Hey, I can live this way. But I don't really I can be free from the trappings of the things I get from it. It's like that scene in Fight Club, right? If you've seen Fight Club, we don't own our things. They own us, right? And so it's the same ideas, we can have these things, we can do this stuff. We just don't we can't care we have to renounce the values or the the fruits thereafter. So making sense. So these stories all fold together to explain These questions over the divine reality.
Krishna was talking to our Juna ARJUNA
who is a leader of one of one set of royal cousins.
oh, the Mahabharata. I did put it in there. I didn't know I did. There are also poems and stories and hams called piranhas, but we won't talk about them in detail, so I wouldn't worry about them too much. I just want you to see that there are multiple layers and styles and genres of Hindu texts, whether it's old folkloric things, or whether it's more philosophical like to punish odds are more like heroic epics. And you see this in other traditions. In Islam, you'll see different styles of texts in Judaism, you see that? Right? You have prophetic literature, you have poetry, of all kinds of different elements. So different genres of text is not Income thing pressing forward. Okay. All right. So let's talk about these last bit and then we'll we'll stop there. Basically for the Hindu life, there are four stages. You move through these stages. You are a student of the way of Brahman, and these are these are indebtedness. Brahma has revealed itself to you so you must study it. Raw Brahman has given a created a livelihood so that you dwell in its household. The Hermit is when you're beginning to reflect on the nature of things and when you're moving towards Moshe and then finally the stage of renunciation, where you revoke all the things given.
And these are four stages of progression.
Therefore goals for the Hindu person, and this is dude being beautiful, having some sensory experience material and social welfare, and ultimately liberation. So the goal here is not just to leave behind this stuff, you're sort of have to pass through it. You're going into it, rather than just rejecting it out, right?
I'll let you write those down, then I'll move to the next frame.
These don't require tremendous amount of explanation only because at this point, if you get the genuine if you get the general concept of the Divine reality and liberation, you can start to make sense of the smaller pieces. YD these things would be there. Why would duty be there? Why would liberation be there? Why would material and social welfare be there? Why would sensation be important again, because there's not a grand distinction between the one and the Mini. The question is what what's the nature of their relation
Okay, last frame.
These are different elements of the very narrow personal life. Dr. Sean means to see, it would be the word you would use for worship, but it doesn't really mean worship it means visibility. So you can see how this would be important. The Hindu person
but instead we would call it Darshan. They go to see they go the to the temple to see they go to the shrine to see the idea. See what is to see into this Divine unity is to see into this divine reality is to be able to peer into it, to understand it to know it.
I want to go to
rocky I think I'm going to skip Pooja, I'm going to go to karate. karate is a sacrificial practice. And it means it's a practice of light a sacrifice of light where light tools are shaken over an image. I think that's kind of a fascinating way of approaching I cannot iconography. So remember the images of these gods are important to them. So when they interact with them, they sort of pour light onto them again, that goes to the idea of seeing is what I wanted you to see from that mantras are chance sounds vocalizations. You saw this all the way back with the arm. Right? In order to encounter the divine reality you can encounter through image you can encounter it through sound. And then fire sacrifices you can see fires has been important since the Vedic traditions making
Yeah, okay, any questions? Yes, ma'am.
It's been there since the Vedic traditions fire is important because it's like, it can consume and it can give. So it takes and it gives, which is very much a creating, preserving dissolving. Brahma, Vishnu Shiva. Type way of looking at things. Vedic era VDIC so the old old old stuff they were doing far sacrifice back then. Okay.