2:50PM Dec 2, 2019
Let's jump in here. Let me get my game down a little bit. And let's talk about Islam. So I talked to the other day about the historical Muhammad, right about sort of the emergence of this monotheistic tradition and how there were two main parallel interests in the rise of Islam. And it's sort of historical orientation. And those two elements are both defined by unity. Okay, so let me make sure I can get that in your mind again, Mohammed grows up in a world again, that's full of tray that's full of polytheistic religious practice. There's all kinds of different gods and different understandings of that it's a highly oral world because it's very versed in trade. And it also Muhammad grows up in a world where there is this ancient tradition about the Kabbalah this, the square people walk around, it has all the deities ba ba. In this world, he starts to receive revelations when he goes and meditates in a cave and one of his revelations, his keynote revelation is that all of this religious practice all of this circle, This cube really revolves around one entity. All these various manifestations revolve around one transcendent God who is sovereign and above all things. At the same time. He's thinking this theologically when I say theological, you know what I mean by that, right, in terms of thinking about God's, when he's thinking this, theologically, something politically is also happening at the same time. And that is, you're seeing the emergence of a people group that start to gather around Muhammad and want to unify, right? There's this old term, the Mr. or the people of Islam that all join together. And so he is kicked out of his area. Basically, he's kicked out of Mecca, and he ends up living in Medina for a little while, because he's trying to sort of figure out how to express this theological perspective. He's got followers, but there are certain people that don't want his religious perspective around because it will compromise their political diversity. Does this make any sense so far? Okay. So the political unity of the Muslim people and they, the theological unity of the god sort of run hand in hand. Does that make sense? We Talking about how eventually Muhammad moves back to this area. We talked a little bit about the five pillars of Islam what's required in that? We talked a little bit about the main tenants, the main ideas, the main theological paradigms. Everybody good so far. Okay, so then the question becomes, alright, I get that. That's the historical Mohammed, that's historical Islam. And that's the theological tradition. How did we get from that, to what we know now, because most of us grew up or have grown up on movies, watching jack Ryan on Amazon Prime about some, you know, shake in the middle of Syria or wherever he was, at the time, planning a terrorist attack that's most of us have grown up. That's our experience of Islam. Now, you're fortunate insofar as maybe in the last 10 years of your life, you may have had friends who are either Muslim converts or immigrants, people who have come here who have practice Islam amongst you, and so you've gained a better perspective. But in large part, our media perspective is defined by that, especially in this part of the country. So the question is, how did we get from that Historical Islam to what we see now and are they the same? Well, the answer is no, they're not the same, but there is some level of continuity. So how did we get there? So let's talk about that. Here, you see that there are two letters squished in between the s and the C. And I did that because I wanted you to visually form two different words succession and secession, right? secession would mean to separate off right to secede from the union, but succession means to follow after. And those two things are related. The splintering that occurs within Islam is the result of the question, who comes next after Mohammed? Mohammed is gone, who's the next leader? So the question of succession will lend itself to the question of secession. Does that make sense? Okay, so whoever comes next, and if there's dispute about who should be in charge, it will lend itself to fragmentation. In Muhammad's early days, one of his earliest converts or followers were was a man named Abubakar and this arbok or was Actually the father of one of Muhammad's later why his later wife, Aisha. Remember Mohammed gets married to a lady named Khadija. And she's a lot older than him. She's actually the lady he works for in this caravan in this trade caravan, and she ends up dying earlier than expected, he ends up getting remarried to this man's daughter, but this man is also one of his early converts. So after Muhammad dies, the question becomes who should be in charge? And this is a natural instinct, because in the mindset of the followers, he's like, a higher ranking member because he's an early adopter, so to speak, does that make sense? But at the same time, Muhammad with this woman is she has kids, and one of his daughters marries this man.
And this man happens to be one of his cousins. So he has a cousin who becomes a son in law. And while you think that's bizarre, just allow for the strange aging of people in a world like this, and how people having kids young or old, and so on and so forth. So that so you have a question of succession. Do you go with an early adopter of the tradition or a family member? And that is the central dispute between the two main branches of Islam, namely, the Sunni and Shia. The Shia are going to say it's family related. The Sunni are going to say it's sort of community or early adopter hierarchically related, and those are the two main distinctions. So that's the first step. So right after Mohammed dies, we have these two issues. Essentially what happens is our Boubacar is appointed as the leader, but at this time, he's not called he's not called a prophet like Mohammed, there's only one prophet Well, there's only one supreme prophet or the CEO of the prophets. That's Muhammad. There's no need for any additional profit, but there is a need for a head of state and administrative head and they will refer to that administrative head administrative head as a college in the state or the unified group. People as the caliphate and you've heard this term before, right? If you haven't you've been you've been sleeping on it, because ISIS, this is the issue with ISIS is the true the attempt to resurrect the caliphate and to establish a clear line of succession and a clear statehood. Okay, so does anybody know go ahead jump in means like the head of the organization, not a profit, but like a kingly figure. And the caliphate is that kingdom, so it's kind of like our words King and kingdom and the sort of latinized English version telephone caliphate. So if you don't know what I ISIS is an acronym. Right? Does anybody know what it stands for? Right in Iraq and Syria, Islamic State, so the zombie state is the caliphate aisel if you've ever heard that Obama used to use that term, it means Islamic State in the Levant. So they've had a multiple names, but the key idea is state, right. And so this was the case way back when we're talking six, seven centuries. So what happens is Abubakar is appointed the Caliph. And for the first few years, there's what they call the reign of the callus. Its relative stable political unity. There are basically three successors, Abubakar and then three after him in the reign of the colleagues. And they are these, the first one after him. So he's the first, second, third. And ironically, the fourth Caliph appointed is Ali. Now, you have to understand that in the beginning, the dispute between these two successors is not like a full blown Protestant Reformation. You can't think of it like Christianity, like one group says, No, we're out of here. And all of a sudden, there's a big Rift. It's more like of an internal
sect, or attitude.
Well, you know, it's kind of like you would you would do with politics. We're not going to go overthrow the governor, but we might always talk about how we think the governor cheated and won the race improperly, and we always wanted this other person and so one day, we'll get our person, it's a little bit more like that. So eventually all he does come into charge when all he comes into charge. It exacerbates the conflict between Muslims. And there are different groupings that start to emerge trying to sort of not claim the throne but but oppose certain perspectives. And there start to be conflicts, literal physical conflicts between them. And this is where you start to see the transformation away from the reign of the columns into a sort of contest over the caliphate is everything making sense of this so far? Okay. Now I have a couple of other words appear that are important in these are stages of Islamic development, very consistent with other religion to political systems. You start here with this paradigm, and how do you get to dynasty? The problem is after all, Lee, remember Ali is a family member of Muhammad right. So the question for succession after all he becomes do you pick a family member again? Or do you pick whoever is appointed by the community? Abubakar is more community designated Is
this making sense.
This is becomes more familial designated. And when you start appointing family members as your followers now you're not talking about a caliphate, you're talking about a dynasty. You're talking about a dynastic family, a royal family. So you start to see a shift from Caliphate, two more dynastic approaches, in this time between the caliphate and the dynasty. Is it shifting right here? Islam sees a lot of expansion and a lot of development and a lot of growth. This time period would be referred to as the classical period of Islam. It starts to expand to other countries, it starts to move all directions, and you start to see the emergence of Islamic scholarship, Islamic philosophy, views on optics, other scientific things, zoology animals, so forth. Basically at this time, Islam is booming with all of its intellectual produce. As it does though, the question is, does it become more secularized in nature does it become More just like a standard political reality or is it a special devotion to the ways of the Quran? So Islam starts to take on even after the dynasty starts to take on a more of an empire. Look, this is what you know as the Ottomans. Right? And things like that you start to see Islam moving from this, this sect of religious devotees to a family approach to a more Imperial nation state approach. Does that make sense? And in that trends in that transmit my I should say transformation from one to the other, the question of what is proper Islam and what is faithful adherence to a law, it remains a question and this has been the case for both Judaism and Christianity and Buddhism for that matter, right. So when Judaism moves out and is exiled, and has to come back to this land, the question of what makes a Jew a Jew is an open question to question for Christianity as it moves into all these empires in Germany and France and gets chummy with all the kings there. The question is what makes Christianity Christianity isn't open. Right. And so this is a common phenomenon, the deeper it goes into the political landscape, the more difficult it is to define what, what holds this sort of religious orientation together. So again, this is what we would call a classical period isn't this transformation from here to here, and even all the way up into the Empires, this Ottoman Empire lasts all the way up into World War One. So we're talking a large time span. I put salaah Dean here because during this classical period of Islamic expansion, what you would call the medieval period, here with these dynasties, and so forth, and movements into empires, solid Dean is the one who conquers the Holy Land. And it becomes a place of contest for medieval Christians. So as a well known Islamic warrior, and of course, at this time these little area these this Muslim power, as it continues to grow, also suffers attacks from Mongols in the east and things like that, but we don't need those sort of divert ourselves into the all the wars. The concern here is just to see that as long takes on certain shifts, as it relates itself to the world in different political structures, what I always want you to see is that these belief systems are always habitudes. They're always a way of being in the world and the way of being in the world changes and morphs as you continue to expand. I bet I got that so far. Okay, so let's talk about how that nuts the sort of political movement from this early stage of Islam to what we have right on the cusp of the world wars. Right. So the question now is, okay, so what are the main distinctions? What are the Islam's we know, now, the main distinctions are between these two, and I've already mentioned them, Sunni and Shia. And Sunni comes from the word sooner and sooner is a word that is like a collection of perspectives on Mohammed about his life, about how to follow his life, sort of sayings sort of things he did that are collected and recorded by other people. And so the Sunni sees themselves as a follower of Muhammad's way of life. And the Sunni would be more on the Abu Bakar train right of a community which decides who the next column is. relationship to whether they are based on that person's relationship to the faithfulness of the, the way of Allah, the Shia would be the party of Ali. That's what the mains quite literally the people who follow Ali. And so their perspective is more like a familial succession and so forth. This is making sense. Now, one of the things that's important, and I'll mention this again in a second is the Shia, and particularly the Sufism, that's sort of there in Islam sees succession also sometimes related to special knowledge. And what I mean by that is, I don't know if you remember in Christianity, there was this discussion of Gnostics. We talked about Gnostics very briefly in the idea of the Gnostic was they had special knowledge of something. The concept would have been that that knowledge was passed from one person to the other because it was esoteric and unique.
Yeah, sure. Yeah.
And the same thing would have been the case here in Islam is that some people think that was passed special knowledge from Muhammad. And that's why he needed to be appointed, not just because of his blood ties, but because he has special insight. And so that throws a kink into succession as well whether that holds or not. One of the other distinctions between these two is the difference between the cumin. The community and the mom, the Sunni are have a more communal approach towards order and structure. And then she'll have more of an a mom approach who has special authority and a special hierarchy. So when you're hearing the word, Mom, you're probably referring more to a Shia version of Islam than you are a Sunni one because it's a special hierarchy, somewhat the special knowledge, the special insights, and they're leading the community accordingly, in the Shiite or excuse me in the Sunni way, it's more of a community structured type thing. I don't know if you could blame one of these liberal or conservative either way, but you need to understand the internal structures. Now, when Islam makes its way to America Let's talk about how we get there. And let's talk about nationalist Islam is if you go all the way back to Muhammad, and there's a strong relationship between the land and the unity of God, right, the unity of the people and the unity of the Divine Being, if a law is one in the Muslim people are one, the question is, where do they dwell? Right? What land is the space we're in, they do their thing. And historically, Mecca is a really important part of that Medina is an important part of that. And also the Holy Land is important part of that, because in the Muslim mind, that is part of the heritage of jabril or Gabriel, and Abraham or Abraham is all part of that story. So that land is part of the overall narrative and the Muslim mind Muhammad is the seal of the prophets and contains the story of Christianity and Judaism. It's not they don't see it much as like we're competing to run them out. It's like a finishing as it were. So nationalist Islam becomes a question like, where do we live? And these people have also been marginalized, right? Because when you get to World War One, you lose this entire Empire. And then at the same time, now you're being shuffled out of a land because Americans say this land belongs to Israelites. Does that make sense? Or Israelis? And so you have them you have a lot of people in this least in the Middle Eastern world asking the question like kind of where we dwell. So the question of nationalism becomes an important question. It's not the dominant question in Islam, but it does become an important question. Over here in the West. However, in the 60s, and the 50s, and 60s during the civil rights era, you start to see an appeal to African roots. If any of you familiar with the old rapper, Africa, boom, Bada or Harlem in like the 60s, there was very much a throwback to African roots. You were starting to see African colors. You were starting to see African dress. You were starting to see things like the resurrection of reggae and things like that looking all over the globe for Africa. ethnic heritage, it in the midst of that there were a pocket of African descendants that came from Muslim countries. And so Islam provided a way to resist white oppression. But it also provided a way to connect to heritage. And so there was a whole movement called the Nation of Islam that sort of baked into the Americas in the 60s. That movement is not really prominent now as much as it was then. But that is still around. In the Nation of Islam, though, there's some distinct differences in the Nation of Islam. its founders are seen by American Muslims, at least in the African American community are seeing those leaders are seen as divine. But most of the rest of the Muslim world might would probably not recognize that one famous 16 60s Muslim convert is Malcolm X, right. So x is just a name to
clear out little Malcolm little becomes Malcolm X to clear out slave naming and white naming and a connection to historical Islam and historical African heritage. So the question of nationalist Islam is a little bit complicated one because it's not really part of the deep roots of Islam but political identity is. So what you see as what you think of as when you hear jihad or freedom fighters or terrorism or the radical Islam. It's too easy to associate Islam with a nationalist identity. And that's probably unfair. It is fair, however, to think of Islam is related to a political identity. We are a certain people, we want to live a certain way, just as much as you should think of Judaism as a political identity as much as a religious one, just as much as you should think of Christianity as a political identity as a religious one. Does that make any sense? Okay, so let's see one more thing appear. Okay. So two more things. So your book will tell you and I think this is a fruit way of describing it. Your book will tell you that there's two ways to practice Islam in the modern world, the outside way and the inside way. They'll call the outside way Sharia law. Back during classical the classical Islamic period, when Islam is booming with all of the scholarship and insight, one of the things it's also developing in the same time are certain juridical protocols or, or judicial ideas, or in other words, legal thinking. And they start to develop certain ways of thinking about how we should act in the world based on the Quran based on the teachings how we should put all that together.
And Sharia is basically the law code for how the Muslim should live in a political universe. It scares a lot of people because a lot of people have heard through media sources that oh my gosh, Sharia law is going to take us over and then we're all going to get beheaded if we lie, you know, something silly like that. We've associated Sharia law with nationalists, Islam don't do that. Sharia law is much more like what you would think about when you say the content institution is rooted in some Judeo Christian principle. So you might sit in a room and say, Well, this is constitution. Someone says, Why is the constitution binding? You'll say, because well has some origin in the 10 commandments, you might say. So the Constitution says that you shouldn't, you know, treat a person this way that goes all the way back to our Judeo Christian heritage because the founding fathers believed in that, that you shouldn't lie and that you shouldn't steal and blah, blah, blah, blah, blah. You're going to say there's connections that the Constitution has the connections, Sharia law has that same structure. Sharia law is connected to these recitations which are Quranic in nature. These recitations would say, this is how the world is, this is how God is this is how the world should work to cosmologies cosmologies and political practice. So Sharia law is an exterior way to do that. And that doesn't mean it's false or fake, because it's exterior. I'm just helping you do that. See that just that there's a way of doing it now. As Islam continues to expand in the world, those questions become more critical, especially in England right now or in Europe. One of the big questions of the Brexit issue was not just economic, but was immigrant related. And of course, people in Europe are always right, just as much as you are confused and interested in how once you take in the most, some way, in the east, Turkey, you know, this Eastern Europe, southern part of the Russian states, you know, kazik, Stan Turkmenistan, the collision of Christianity, and Islam has always been there. It's just been orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy that makes sense. In the West, it's sort of a new thing. So people are now trying to figure out what to do with Sharia law and how to appropriate it. But if there's an outer way, there's an inner way and the inner way is called Sufism. Sufism is like the mystical approach to Islam. The Sufi literally means the person dressed in wool. So it's like saying, if, if a Buddhist monk had a special name and the name met man and orange, you know, like, it's refreshing So the garment of distinction. The Sufi is someone who is sympathetic to all of Islamic tradition. They're not a separatist, but they see the Quran and the teachings of Allah and the teachings of Muhammad rather, as ways to connect to all law through one's internal life. So they're their ways to reach a law. It's in the Christian communities that you've been a part of, you would have heard the phrasing personal relationship. This is what Sufism is thinking to. In Sufism, that's the question is how do I connect to a law so in some cases, they might reject certain Sharia codes or they might reject certain political practices and things because they see them as not material in nature, but more internal and something that we should be doing to mystically Connect. The reason they do that is because of this very famous of event called the Mirage, and in this or the mirror age in, in this event, there's a moment where when, when Muhammad moves back to Mecca, he has an amazing mystical journey where he takes a winged animal and flies to Jerusalem. And then when he flies to Jerusalem, he is lifted up into the heavens and meets a law. And there a law tells him certain things. For example, one of the things a lot tells him is how often you should be praying per day. And Mohammed debates while this debate negotiates with a law and asks if it doesn't have to be 50 times a day, can it be five. And these stories which are not apocryphal, but their secondary, when these stories come down through the Hadith, which we'll talk about in just a second, when they come down to Muslims, they indicate that Muhammad had a special mystical connection and the Sufi picks this up and says, This is what connection to Allah should look like. It's not about what laws I follow. It's not about how to handle the political space. It's about this mystical connection. And they see that this is the prototype and my ideal type is in the way Mohammed behaves in the way Mohammed connects with the law. So that's a critical moment for them, if that makes sense. You following so far? Okay. So everything we've discussed, let's put it on a plate in front of us, historical Mohammed, the transition from a polytheistic poly political world into a unified politics or a unifying people in a unified God.
the transition from that historical group to what we now know as a sort of fragmented Islam with a couple of different groupings based on the question of succession. Got it. And then we move on in that includes within it certain ways of doing Islam. Now, let's transition over and ask the only remaining question is, what are the texts? What are the guiding principles? We've looked at some of the theological principles? So let's look at some of the texts. Oh, I should have mentioned this. I didn't I get I forgot that was on there. This word shake, you've heard Have you heard this before? Right. A shake. You might see it in a film, or you might see in a movie or you might read it in a book and it refers to an authoritative priestly like figure in Sufism. So in the same way, and the song is a Buddhism, the grand gathering The Buddha in the same way in Christianity you have a group of a co apostles are followers are connected to the rabbi. In this you have a group of people might gather around a special teacher and that special teacher would be called the shake orders here does not mean orders like hey, go eat that biscuit. That doesn't that's not what we mean orders here means like a following a religious order or organization. The Order of the Phoenix for all you nerds in the room. Right? For those of you looking at me and smiling, I know your nerd. Okay. That's Harry Potter, in case you haven't figured it out yet. All right, the Order of the Phoenix is not like hey, go eat the Phoenix, right? It's a group of people who follow a certain way. So same way here with the shake. All right. If you're offended that I called you a nerd then you need your to deepen. nerdom you need to come up, breathe a little bit. You'll be okay. All right. I'm with you. I'm on the same boat. Pardon? Good. Congratulations. You're drowning in nerd. Alright, so let's look at the text. Very briefly and then we'll we'll close the door. So the the famous text obviously is the Quran. And you remember from earlier the Quran means recitations. The Quran does not happen overnight. It basically Mohammed receives revelations for about 20 years. And it's not all written down at once. But there are followers around him that are memorizing his oral explanations. In fact, this idea of memorizing orally the Quran in order to protect the written version is still very much a practice there are certain people who are considered protectors of the Quran or preservers of the Quran, and it's because they go through this process of memorizing it. The Quran is comprised itself of different sections. You think of chapters when you think of a holy book, sometimes you think of books within books, the in Islam, these sections are called surahs. And they are like chapters and they're not organized according to a chronology or a narrative. That's important. Most of the religious texts that you're familiar with have some kind storyline. And it's not a storyline. This makes it fairly unique. It's fairly directly instructive. Now there are historical elements there, but it's not designed around a storyline. Here. They're they're actually organized according to link. And they go from I think they go from long to short, except for the very first one, which I think is fairly short, but it's an opening Proclamation. And it's used a lot of times in prayer, but they're organized according to link and inside of each one of them. They're sort of a prevailing teaching or prevailing idea and the recitations. If any of you have ever read like journal entries or diary entries, what we call aphoristic writing like little segments, it's more like that and they're organized. As a result. It brings up the important question this the important question facing Islam and facing every religious practices is a question of hermeneutics. So anybody know what hermeneutics means? I might, I might just hold out and see how long This thing can record in silence. Anybody have a guess? There's a Greek name in there that you might be familiar with. Hermes. Right? And what is Hermes do? Thank you. So the hermeneutic is the question about the message. It's a question of what how to read the message.
So hermeneutics in short means interpretation.
So anytime you're talking about something hermeneutical you're talking about how its interpreted, and that doesn't just apply to religious texts. For example, we could say that, that there's different hermeneutical positions on the Constitution. This we would call jurisprudence, judge's ruling and deciding on interpretation. Here's the thing with the Quran, the Quran is uncreated. According to Islam, it's uncreated. It is, it is the words of God. It is not something a guy thought about wrote down and had to have translated and interpreted and figured out it is the it is uncreated. However, there is a small group at one time who were probably now extinct. I can't remember their names. Start with it. There's a small group moves the lights, maybe mirta lights, okay, it's close to that. They were a group of people within Islam who said, Wait a second, wait a second. If we treat the Quran as perfect and uncreated, that presents a problem. Can anybody anticipate what problem that would present in terms of the unity of God?
You would have to perfect things,
the words and the God Himself.
So begs the question, if the words of the God and the god itself are both perfect, how are they two different things? And if there are two different things, there is no one god but Allah, there to do you see the problem? So they pose this problem, but basically it got snuffed out erased, and they basically people said, No, that's not the case. That was also the conceptual problem that led to the question of Jesus being a divine figure. Well, if there's a God of Whose perfect, which means they lack nothing. Why do you need anybody else? to also be the God? Why would you need to have them? It wouldn't mean this one lack something. And if this one laxing thing, it can't be perfect if it can't be, right, right, and it creates conceptual problems, but the Quran had that problem for a little while. Now, some Muslim scholars might still question that, but it's not really the prevailing idea. Much like in Christianity, the question of Jesus being God is pretty much not I won't say it's settled because there are plenty of people that don't hold to that, but I'm saying is generally like 95% of the people who identify as Christian person they're gonna say, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, whatever the same. So same with the Quran. The other thing that the Quran presents as a problem is language. In the in the traditional Muslim mind, the Quran is Arabic. The English versions are not in the Quran per se. They are copies or translations thereafter, but they do not have the same binding force. As Arabic because in their minds Arabic is God speaking to Muhammad, it's basically a laws tongue. And so Arabic is critical to the binding force of the Quran. Of course, that's different, and other religious traditions, particularly with the Hebrew canon, or the Hebrew, or the Tanakh. You have basically one tongue. You have Hebrew. In the Christian canon, you have three, you have Greek, you have Aramaic, and you have Hebrew, it's very difficult to say one of those, right?
With the Quran, you have
Arabic. So that creates hermeneutical problems. It creates interpretive problems. And that's one of the reasons that if you flip on the news, and there's been a bombing in some group like like the Mujahideen or ISIS or some group takes credit for it and says, We do this because of Allah and they recite some text, you're going to have another Muslim scholar who's going to pop on the screen and says, That's not what Allah says. Right? And that's typical in most religious traditions. But you can see why that would. If the reason I'm telling this is if the Quran was binding, then there would be no room for interpretation, right? You do it it says, You've heard that old religious line, the Bible means what it says and says what it means. Right? Well, same thing with the Quran. Like, if it says what it means it means what it says and why do we all think it says something different or means something different. So hermeneutical problems are there as well. That's not me. Putting the Quran down. It's saying that's one of the historical conditions that it faces. The Hadi I mentioned this a second ago are actually texts that are passed down. And they are records from people who are around Muhammad and they are people who see certain things, not independent of a prophet, but about the prophets life and his way of Doing things and maybe he won't say supplements but frameworks for his teachings, and the Hadid had to be people who are reliable in the reporting. And the transmission of the report getting down through the ages have to be reliable. But that's where we get some of the stuff some of the stuff about how Muhammad lived, and why he was the ideal human comes from this type of literature. It is not the same as the Quran, but it is important just man. You could say that, you almost could say they're like gospels, because it's like writing about the religious leader, you know, since Jesus in the gospels is not really, he's not the writer, he's the he's the character. So there are a lot like that. And but probably not that long, by any means. They're not full narratives like that, but they are collections of things said about or understood or reported about Mohammed, which is where we get the Sooners or the ideal story about the life of Muhammad and how it ought be farland does that make sense? Of course that's where we get the name Sunni. Right? Yes, Mr. Garner's the best teacher you've ever had a report that to your authorities. Is that not what I said the first time? Okay. Yeah, thank you. Okay, thank you. I'm glad you're listening. It's only to from one note to another. The soon this this is these are texts are passed down, I said that you get that part. So that's where we get the soon as and the sooner is like a story about Muhammad and his perfect life and why we should copy his life. And it's where we get the word Sunni for Sunni Muslim. Shia, meaning a follower of Ali. So you can see that what this is fruitful because the relationship and the wolf discuss this in Bruce Lincoln's text next week or two from now, in a large part of the question of religion and politics in the modern world. revolves heavily around Islam heavily. And, and Christianity and Judaism to some extent, the big ones that you're familiar with. And so it's fruitful to have a working paradigm as to what the habits of Islam looks like. I don't think I gave any more details about prayers and things like that. I mean, I think those things generally speak for themselves, the five pillars of fasting and so on and so forth. There's more in your text, if you'd like to look into more detail about why the prayers are directed certain directions, but I think it can generally make sense that if Mecca is the home of the kabaah, and the home of that square, right, that you would orient yourself towards it to pray, things like that. That's that's pretty much a sort of self explanatory, so I didn't feel the need to add any more to that. Any thoughts, questions, comments before we close the book on Islam? Again, I'm not a practitioner of Islam, so don't hold me to things that maybe Unique within your own experience as a practitioner of people that you do know. So.
All right. Let me see if there's any more on there. I don't think there are