Religion and Society MWF
2:49PM Aug 30, 2019
They have a high school like on the basement floor. It's like career magnet Academy or something like that. And so I'm up there saying all kinds of illicit things cursing and I got these like 16 year old kids in there I'm thinking Oh, damn it all right.
Yeah, so I said maybe I need to talk a little bit louder like so the poison can bleed down to the lower floor. Well, anyway, everybody okay? Yeah, promise. Alright, so let's talk about
you know, maybe maybe we should put it on
and we should put it to you first. Why, why religion for you?
Why here why this why 40 people?
Are you religious people? Are you wanting to fulfil that requirement? You
have a certain entry in religious practice. You are disinterested in angry about religion. And so you want to find out what else weaknesses are? Where are you coming from, in terms of your interest in religious practice?
You can beat and continue the truth if it's I needed to fulfil the credits Okay, so I got hurt my feelings think I can persuade you otherwise
yeah of course what is it fulfil like a humanities requirements some sort? Okay
back slider Yeah, I just
don't think I truly understand.
So you taken a sort of a sampling approach through time
and has the I'm just curious, has the sampling approach been more from people or more from Digital like, Oh, I'm exposed to this line of thinking that I didn't know about so i'd I'm looking it up or reading about it or is it Oh, I met this person on a hike and I really am into what they're into
Ok. So for how many of you has religion been a tense matter whether it's don't talk about in class because people are going to get pissed, or like, I don't want to talk about religion because I feel like that makes me feel bad. And I don't mean just one particular faith tradition. I just mean generally is that where do you all fit with that? Or so A is religion is tense because a lot of people argue about it be is religion makes me tense because I feel like a crummy person or see, just kind of indifferent to it. So I'm open to talking about it. Most people see those. See? Anybody a, it's hostile. Okay. Is that because of an experience or an anticipated experience?
It's like you think that's what's going to happen or it has happened.
Okay, blew up in high school.
Okay. Okay, interesting.
So what I want to do is I, it's good to know that because, you know, as we said the other day, and the 80s and 90s Francis Fukuyama and other kinds of people were saying that religious expression was going to be just completely complete, it wasn't going to be necessary anymore based on the kind of technological developments and scientific developments that, you know, the world was seeing, and then everything that happens in the 2000s, not just 911, not just because of some kind of event, but that was one event that said, hey, maybe the way we've been thinking about religion was wrong to begin with. In the 90s. There was a guy named Samuel Huntington at he was a Harvard professor, he wrote a book called The Clash of Civilizations. Has anybody ever read this before? Okay, well, Huntington said was and unfortunately Huntington I don't think cutting Tim was completely right. Of course now we know but he was extraordinarily
prescient, and that was mean, like he could see what was coming down the road. And what he said is that people are not going to in the future, he said, This is the 90s. He's in the future, people are not going to identify with their nations. They're going to identify with their religious societies. So he redrew these maps all over Europe. And instead of having a border around Switzerland or having a border around Germany, they were these larger, just swaths of area where it would say, well, these people are European, Western Christian people. These people are Middle Eastern Arabic influence, maybe Muslim people. These people come from more Eastern mystical, whether it's Shinto from Japan, or whether it's some kind of Chinese can, you know, confusion, tradition, or whatever, has all these different pieces? Is this making sense? And so he said, people are going to align with those tearing their territories are going to be aligned with the way they do life. And what he was saying is that inside of countries, you're not going to see Germany go to war with France. You're going to
People groups go to war with each other, or they're going to clash because they identify with these ways of being. And though it's not necessarily the case, that every religious expression that rubs up against each other are naturally going to be into conflict. Although some people think that like marks or maybe max vapour, or Huntington, it does suggest that we more predominantly align with our religious associations then we do with necessarily nation states. Is this making sense so far? Right. Yeah, it's sensible to us back in the 90s. It wasn't. So back then it was like, Okay, well, what, you know, everybody's more focused on being American more focused on being German. But now we're finding ourselves and we're reasons I want you to write papers about the digital revolution, is because we're seeing another transformation, right. And that transformation is that we align ourselves to certain digital networks in ways that we didn't before. So while you may want to go hiking and you might find someone who is a more mystical person, or they practice an indigenous or native religion, to the area, maybe
They have a Cherokee background or something like that.
You You're finding that now with the digital revolution, there are different kinds of associations and bonds, does that make sense? And basically what I want to do with religion is I want to say that the best way to understand it is to think of it through these terms a little bit more religions as a society or, and society. And this is this is the reason why I'm apologise for my marketing cup here. I went a flat tire so my wife took my car and I didn't have my standard cup, so apologise for that. Okay.
It is it but it's, it's supposed to be small on there, but it's like a camping style cup. So it's metal and it fits the Yeti lids perfectly. So that way I could get the lid I can get the handle and I get the Moscow Mule effect. So if I just put a little bit of vodka in there, nobody's going on over there. Right?
You're thinking is is that why he's so loose up there?
Oh, I didn't tell you this. I wear him every day. wear the same clothes every day. did not stop
say this. I wear the same clothes all week. Every day, right? You've seen this?
Yeah, so here's the okay. So a couple of years ago, my wife, okay, are you familiar with the con Mari principles? Okay? So Connemara is this movement, this Japanese lady Marie Kondo is pushing this notion of declutter in your house, right? You've seen it on Netflix. Well, a couple years ago, we were kind of starting to think how should we do that with clothing. This was before the con Mark thing got big. And there were a couple of people that my wife follows on these fashion blogs that promoted this notion of a capsule collection. Okay. And so the idea of a capsule collection was instead of just having this God awfully large closet with stuffy to continue to accumulate, you only have 30 pieces per season. Like in the winter, I'm going to have these 30 pieces, it's going to be these three sweaters, these two this, this this, and then at the end of that season, you get rid of all of those and you create new capsule. So the idea is you continue to get the shop right because my wife wants to continue the shopping process, but
Have a gaudy closet. And so we thought we'd whittle down to about 30 pieces. And then you know, in the spring she'd get a new set. And so there would always be this big adventure some like shopping excursion, she failed miserably May. Perfect. So I have like sets, uniform sets. So I wear this whole week. Next week. It'll be totally it'll be different. It'll be similar. It'll be trousers, it'll be vest and it'll be a shirt. But I move on to the next set, because frankly, I don't want to think about what I'm wearing. And yeah, I don't I don't I'm just thinking I want to wear this. I want to have bad teeth smell like a British old man. That's kind of my goal in life. If I could wear tweed all day every day, I would if it didn't, it's so bad if it wasn't so hot. But I will say that at the end of the week, I try to stay further away from you as possible. So the the sort of aroma of pig pin doesn't kind of make its way into the front row. So
yeah, good for him smart man. Yeah.
I'm on I'm on his side. Well, yeah.
I get that I try to minimalize and get as few as possible. I should also say that during lectures, this front row, it should probably be painted orange, this is the splash zone. So don't be surprised if you get hit. If you've ever been to see world you know that like the front row in front of shampoo is all like painted orange because shampoo might get you wet. This is the splash zone. And the wet comes from here. Okay, so if that's happening, I'm sorry, I will try to catch it as it makes its way to you block it. But if I'm really animated, and I can't do that, I do apologise. All right. So that's what's with the clothes. So I want you to I kind of want to think of religion as as a society, but here's why.
We treat society as a singularity. What I mean by that is, we'll say things to each other. Like I'll just society just wants us to sign up just all this pressure from society to have grades all this. We have to please society and get these jobs as if we're not society, right? We're talking about them, not us as people
If we're not complicit somehow we're standing outside of society and watching it, but we treat it as a totality. But if I asked you to pinpoint where society is to put your finger on it and describe it, you can't do it. Right, because it's amorphous. And by Morpheus, I mean, it doesn't have a clear form. It's all like talking about a body. But at the same time, it is like talking about a body because we talk about it as an IT. Are you following me here. And society itself, any kind of social experiment, or any kind of social grouping is made up of interconnected interior parts. Every society is a network of influences. So much so and it's so predominant, you operate within it without knowing it's there, until you betray it.
So for example, you're a part of society until you realise that maybe you don't want to get this job or you don't want these grades and all of a sudden you turn your back on it and point at it and say, it's pressuring me to do this, only because now you're a deviant.
to social standards. Are you following me so far? So societies are the reason
I'd like you to think this way is because that's the way I want you to understand religion functioning, religion functions with society, but also as a society. It is an organism type thing that has all these networked elements in them, and they all are interrelated with one another. And so we can't just look at Hinduism. And say one thing and walk away and say Buddhism is another thing, what we're looking for is the interconnected networks of which they are, right or which comprise them. And that's uniquely different than these two things. Most of us have grown up with these two approaches to religion. Right, even in Mr. Rain waters example. That's such a critique. And but it's to say that that's kind of where we come from. In the 80s, and 90s. food courts really kind of described the way we approached the world space and time everything was there on display for us. We could just walk in and if I want a little bit of Mexico, I got a taco bell. If I want a little bit of Japan, I go to America right now if I want a little bit of America. I'll go to Charlies and I think I've talked about this before is the food court
approach and what we did with all those different invite, what's the like epicentre of that kind of movement? There's a place that you all go to in Florida that displays this idea of having all of the world at my hands wherever I want it. Whenever I want it. Yeah, it's Epcot. Right? Do you guys know what Epcot stands for?
The experimental prototype city of tomorrow.
Right? So what you know Walt Disney was doing this for free, by the way, no charge. What What is he the parks are like,
attempts at building cities,
their micro cities, and I'll have the same structure. There's the centrepiece and all the traffic flows
go from that centrepiece
like this. Right? And the idea is you have a centre hub, and you have the outskirts where the rural people live right in the centre hub, which is supposed to distribute it and all of them have it one
has a hat? Right. One of them has a castle. Right. And Epcot has what in the middle of it? I'm sorry. Oh, no, please allow I apologise getting in your way. What what? What's in the middle of Epcot?
Yeah, we always treated as a golf ball. It's a globe, right? But you notice the globe has no continents.
All of the distinctions of the world are blended into a grey orb. Right? It's supposed to be the universe in a nutshell. And an Epcot. What do you have around the around the perimeter of the pond? Mexico, Japan, England. You know, German? Yeah, the world there. This was really how this boomed in the 80s. Right? This was the mentality, this cosmopolitanism. We can bring the world to us. And we can just sort of take from it. All we need is its ingredients and we can rebuild it here. You don't need to be Japanese. You can just take the Japanese way rebuild it, and we can have it that was the food
Court model too. And that's kind of how we retreated religion for a long time. Yeah, sure, I can be Buddhist, I just need the right ingredients. So the idea was we could take world religions classes in the 80s and 90s. were treating, treating it that way. It was like, let's look at Hinduism. Look at all of its ingredients, and look at the menu and saying, Yeah, now let me try this one. And so it was a very much a selective consumer approach to religious practice. Does that make sense? It was a consumer model, but we thought, okay, in the late 2000s, and then in the teens here, we've tried to reverse that because we realised oh my gosh, we can't just rip people out of their local world and homogenise them by the way, homogenise means like, homogeneous means of the same kind. Okay, so to homogenise stuff is to make it all blended together into one type. Okay? Your homogenised as student one student to student three student for student five. That's how that's how marginalisation you follow me so far. Okay, so we realised it wasn't good to homogenise religions, we can't just don't bring them into
The food court because they're going to lose some of their distinctive. Some of the things that make Buddhism Buddhism have very much to do with the people in the land. Some of the things that make a Hispanic Catholic expression, what it is has something to do with the air and the world of being in South America or being in Mexico, you following me? Something about being evangelical Christian has something to do with unique American history. And so the idea was, we can't necessarily like rip them out of the world's put them in our food court and take them. But the problem was, we did. So what we did is we converted them into food trucks, right? They stay local, they just sort of drive to us. And so the model went from putting them all in one place and kind of figuring out which one we like the best to, well, let's get let them keep their local expression. They'll just be Glocal right. And they'll drive the little food truck in here. And we'll have a craft beer and have like a hipster tattoo and maybe a symmetrical haircut and tight pants. And we'll eat tacos with them. Right? Whatever.
That is it still has the same consumer model. The approach still is I choose, I pick what I like.
And it what it failed to do is it failed to create shifts out of the people and I'm using an extended analogy or you follow. It failed, even had foodies. Now we have foodies, right, they don't go and eat some like microscopic piece of ice cream. And describe how elegant it is. That's the more snooty scholarly approach to consumption. But it's still consumption. Nonetheless. It's an entirely different thing to stop the consumption model and try to look at these expressions in their own terms. And to try to understand these systems, how they understand themselves, but that's difficult, because we can't put our finger on Hinduism and Buddhism and all of that stuff and say, let us try to learn from it because Where's its edges, right. So you might have
Someone who practices that it comes from a Judaic tradition, but they're not Hasidic or Orthodox Jewish. They're like coming from this, that's part of their family lineage. And they might retain maybe one or two ceremonies throughout the year. But by and large, they've, you know, folded into them if you follow me. So it's really hard to pick out where that is. Well, the same thing with society, if I say, Show me society, and show me the outsides and the insides, you're gonna have a hell of a hard time doing it, right. But you know that it's there. So how do we do that? How do we move from the consumptive model to studying religion and studying it as a system, if we can't put our finger on it, the only thing we can do is continue to read and approach it, and maybe get an idea of how systems work. If I can give you a picture of how systems work, maybe we'll get there. Now before we do that, let's talk about how we've treated religion and another respect but the word itself historically, they these are the three words I kind of want you to be familiar with. The first one really Gary is where we get the word
Religion This is a Latin term right? And a lot of people have associated really Gary with religion because it is associated with it, but because the word where they Gary means to bind, okay?
So we've treated religion as if it's a binding contract.
And that's not uncomfortable for us. Many of our experiences with religion has been a line bound to this. And if you leave it, the ship will hit the sand
to hear that Thank you. I'm so glad somebody catches that I realised You're such a young people when you don't know the shit hit the fan, the ship hit the sand, forget it.
If you leave this religion, that's there's going to be some kind of punitive thing or some kind of punishment. So it's binding. It binds my behaviours, what I do during the day, what I do during the night and so forth, and that's true. But that's a fully tell us what religion is that tells us it's kind of has a contractual effect on our life. But the next words a little bit interesting to see. There's only
one letter difference here in the Latin. rela, Gary actually means to read again. And this comes Cicero said Cicero, the great legal theorist and rhetorician of the Roman era, said that he thinks that religion comes from this word, and it actually means to read again. And what's interesting here is the first word suggest binding, but the second word suggests repetition.
And that characterises a lot of our experience with religion, not just that it binds us, but we do it over and over. And over and over to the ad nauseum. Right? So the point where you think I don't want to do this again, you start to say, Well, if you if you do that, we know that prayer every week, the same way go mean nothing to you, right? But that's not how religion works. We have to keep doing them. So
that's another angle on what religion is. And notice what I'm doing here is I'm not trying to say exactly what it is, but I'm trying to say how we can kind of look at it and see if we can get a closer sense of what's happening. Really
Just practice. So the one way was binding the second way was through
repetition. I'm not gonna pull this down because I like to run on the screen the last word there, that's a little hard to see. And this is the one that I'm going to be working from. It's the word habits use. All right.
So habits use, obviously, you can see the English derivatives, right? What English terms are associated with this? habit, right? But even more importantly, that habit is habitat.
We don't usually associate those two terms, not in our regular American everyday life. We think habitat is a place you dwell and habits are things you do, but historically speaking, Adam illogically speaking, and that means the history of the word. Those two things go together, your habits are your home, they make you you. If you subtracted every habit or habitual thing that you did, and notice what habit is, notice that habit fulfils both of these. It's binding and it's repetitious.
You follow if you took away
those features of what you did the way you sat the way you move the coffee you purchased the clothes you wear every day, or the same clothes every day, if you're really bright,
whatever have if you take those away, show me what's left, nothing.
This is the problem with the self and what the ego right is that we think, you know, I just choose a religion. I just, it's whatever I quote like I love when people ask people like, you know, why do you? Why do you like this morning? I don't know. I just like it. And I always want to say Did you like it when you were a foetus? Right? No, because at one point you didn't like it at one point you did. The question is what society did you enter into what habits did you enter into where that thing became likeable? There's a reason that Nike is likeable, and sports are likeable, but because they're part of our habitus. They're part of our dwelling in space and time. It's the way we move in space and time. And it's unquestioned. We express them more than we look at them. They're a part of us more than we do observe them.
Martin Heidegger said it like this, if you're hammering out a nail, with a hammer, and you're doing that over and over and over, you forget the hammer is in your hand, it's fused with your being until something happens, the hammer breaks, then all of a sudden your life, then it's problematic. Well, habits use works the same way you flow from it, you don't think about it, you think with it. And so that's how religious expression, that's the way I want to look at it is we can't go and find a catalogue of nuances, we have to understand is how it works with itself. And we're going to get as close to that as possible. And this is an introductory model, right? This is just my way of saying if you can think this way, when you finish the course you're not going to have Christianity or Islam figured out. But if you practice this art of thinking this way about religions as systems as habits us, then you're more properly prepared to engage religious
expressions, if you end up being deployed to Afghanistan, or if you end up taking a job in Northern Europe, or as the American complexion continues to change, even if you're Christian in America and think that you run the world, right?
By, I think most estimates are 2040 2050, white, Christian Americans, or minority.
And this is because Hispanic immigration, Asian immigration, it changes the complexion of how we do things. That's a good thing, in my opinion. But what I'm saying is, I don't care if you moved to Northern Europe or not, you're going to be you're going to be faced with different expressions of religious practice. And rather than barking at them, you can engage them by trying to understand them in a systemic way. Are you following so far? So I'm not trying to approve or disapprove. I'm trying to say how we can do it now. So let me go back. Let me rewind, make sure everybody's got the picture. I want you to understand religion less as a country.
Sooner option, and more as a social unit, you follow. And I also want to de mythologized religion a little bit. Okay, so what do I mean by D mythologize. By the way, the word myth? Don't let that freak you out? When myth does not mean fake or false. That's something some eighth grade English teacher told you and you need to leave it back there that belongs to kids, not the grown people. A myth those is the Greeks would have said is like an all embracing principle. So when you say when I say Who are you say, I'm just someone who
really loves helping people? That's a mythos. That's a unifying principle. That's how you make sense of your behaviour. You make sense of when you talk to mom and daddy about this and how you take care of that little kid and after care. You've described the relationship between those two phenomena with a central concept, a myth those are you following.
Now I want to D mythologize religions in some way by saying
Don't want you to think about religions is just a bunch of storeys about bats and beheading and occult practices, right? So I want to get rid of some of that stuff and show how if there is sacrifice, right, if there is things like sacrifice, that instead of being Ooh, Adam, I want you to be Ah, I understand, because you look at it as a system over here on this side with society instead of going, Oh, I want you to go.
Because you'll find over here and some of our social practices, they're highly religious in nature, even if there's no divinity. That's not the question. The question dividing is not over here with religion, they have a deity or a god. And over here, there's not one, right? I'm talking about the I'm talking about binding, repetition, habitat. You follow? I'll give you an example here in just a second, but that's the way I want to try to think about these types of things. Of course, I've already said this at one point to is that you think of society as a unity and again, that's
Only to help you process this, for example, right now if I said society, oneness oneness society or a social experiment of being human, what does it have to deal with? What are some of the phenomena that we have to deal with?
Like, what what makes up society? Name?
Say it again?
Okay, so let's say authorities were going to generalise it. Their authorities What else do we have to deal with this? land? Yeah, key issue sky. Yes. Climate, yes or no? Obviously, right. But if your brain is going, you know, we have to deal with the climate problem. You're already too far the wrong direction. What I mean is like, the true Venus, the Roman architect taught us that we build our houses based on relationship to the sun and water, how close we can be to moisture, how far we can be away from moisture. And we still do that. Right? We just don't pay attention because we go
house but the building codes have to be regulated by floodplains. How much water is accessible to that location? For example, you don't necessarily want the septic tank. You want the sewer system so you can poop and peace. Right? no risk that it's going to come back on you. So we still read these questions of climate affect where we put houses where we put houses effect where we put roads, where we put roads determines where we go and where we don't go.
And so these affect what we call social experience. You can say other things like animals.
Doesn't society have to have a certain position for animals? Yes. Do we sacrifice them? You bet we do. It's just that we don't get to see the sacrifice. But is that totally different than say a Judaic sacrifice and the Holy of Holly's, but the priest goes behind the curtain and kills something and spreads the blood out? We don't see the people cut our animals open and spread their blood out.
Right. Do you know
You know, in ancient for the ancient Hebrews, when you performed a sacrifice, you know what's happening, you cut a animal in half,
like this, right? And it represents the two people who were having an argument. All right? And then you take pieces of it, certain pieces of it, you put them over here in a bowl, and you burn them.
Those two people eat those parts. The priest needs a certain part. And guess what happens to the burnt stuff?
What's happening when you're burning, what's going up?
What's going up into the sky?
Smoke, the idea is that the God is eating it. It's a meal.
I pissed you off, you pissed me off. Let's do a sacrifice. And we'll all get together with the town authority. And we'll all sit down and eat and talk about it. And godly to. That's the idea. Well, that's if you look at it through that kind of systematic approach. Then you realise well, socially, we do that too.
Hey, do you want to get coffee? Right? Let's just kind of hash it out. Or you're angry at your neighbours. So you want to reconcile with them. Let's just have them over for dinner. Let's just like bury the hatchet, right?
Right. So the idea is all these things that we do socially have religious shape to them. What's really hard for us to do is see the social implications of the religious stuff. It's easy to see religion in society, it's harder to see society and religion. And that's what I'm trying to do. Everybody good so far. Any questions or thoughts or comments, jump in.
objections? Go ahead.
It's You mean, how do they fit in our system? Well, for example, land. So notice how where American cities started.
What are the big American cities name them
Chicago waterway waterway.
West Coast San Fran waterway. Now think about the other big ones. Atlanta, no waterway Pittsburgh, no waterway, what happens in those two places? True, but not so much in Atlanta?
Well, it ends up being the airport long term is why Atlanta grow so much. Yeah, and shipping and highways. And so when the way we organise land and what we think land is, and will tell ourselves socially, socially will explain why we have a right to that land. For example, we didn't have a right to the land. We just ran out the people who did.
And then we told ourselves a religious backstory, which is, we're fleeing persecution. This land is a discovery. And the forefathers wanted to do a great thing. And we religiously repeat it every November 25.
With a gigantic meal, and the gods of our forefathers eat with us.
And that's right. And that ends up being the important thing is that when we're looking at religious expressions, we're also asking, okay, did the Native Americans have a relationship to the land? Yes. Do immigrant Americans being us have a relationship land? Yes. They describe their relationship to the land differently. That's where you see the subtleties and the nuances between religious expressions is how the Native American so why does the Native American think that the Native American thinks they don't have the rights of the land because they suffered death? It's hard. Whether you're a native a native person who's like an
Inuit person, or like an Eskimo or something like that. You're so used to the climate killing you and being hard to find food. You're always in a place of dependency. I need
My gods to feed me. But if you're coming over on a boat with a whole bunch of weaponry and tonnes of food,
yes, then the earth belongs to you. So the systems are very different. So because of this technological, all of this sort of stuff over here, the religious so called or social approach to land is different than someone who lives in a different way. Which is why you'll still see that difference in say, inside of American religion, an Appalachian person who still lives in a holler and still depends on certain things might have a different religious expression than the person who lives in the city. Right?
Oh, yeah. Yeah, right. Right.
Correct. Correct. That's exactly what I'm asking you in the papers. I'm asking you to think of how digitalization will change parts of the system, because this is no longer as important when the digital comes into play. So you
Used to be in certain religious practices, you were connected to the land. That's how you connected to your gods. But now you don't think that way you think to connect to a religious figure is to connect through your quote, soul, or your insides? Well, the advent of digitalization pushes ideas further into your head instead of out in the world, you don't need the world in order to connect with some kind of feeling. Right? And so religious expressions look very different. And that's a lot of the reason Eastern traditions don't make sense to you. So when you get exposed to Confucius, you might like one word that he says or some statement, but you don't understand that system. Because that system looks different than the systems you've experienced. Does that make sense? So that's what we're after is we're trying to look at these things systemically. Mark Taylor from Columbia, this is one of my favourite comprehensive definitions of religion, although it's not perfect, but what he says is it's an emergent complex network of symbols, myths, rituals, and on the one hand, they figure the way we feel thinking Act. The key is this your
Network, you know, this is a digital person, your network really determines your online behaviour. Right? If you're friends with these people, you adopt certain protocols of what to do and what not to do. For example, if you like this lady, you don't like every one of her photos because the second you do that you're a creep.
You're a quote stalker. Conversely, and you see how it's gendered, right? conversely, if you are a female, and you like every photo he has, you're not called a stalker, a creep. You're called a psycho.
Right? needy. And there are protocols, how we feel how we think how we act, and these digital networks are determined by what's become regular and repetitious in that network.
of people who like all the same things as you right
Right. In mobility studies we call that tele cocooning.
But what's fascinating is you're making my point about religion. If Cicero is right at all about Raila Garay, you'll notice that repetition is critical to digital networks. You just call it re tweeting or reposting. You have to recycle it over and over. And you'll notice that you have that with your friendships in high school. If you didn't have a football game every Friday, you didn't know what to do with yourself. You needed to repeat the ritual over and over and over. Religion is no different religion is an organising principle. It's a way of pulling life together. It's a way of making sense of all of this stuff. You got to pull all of this stuff together the climate danger, animals, threats, enemies, authorities, Sky, meteorology, climate changes, waters, unpredictable earthquakes, we need a systemic way to explain this stuff. And we do that either as a religion or as a society. What I'm kind of saying is they're really kind of wanting
The same their networks.
And we've already talked about this very briefly, but if there's one word that would be most helpful to understanding this religious habit to use, its organisational, it's a way of organising things and the word organisational here does not mean it company. It means like an organism. Right? Now let's take one closer look at the word organisation. And you notice that organisational patterns do want to other things. Not only does it unify, but it discriminates. The youth the organisational pattern will tell you what's in and what's out. And that is a critical part of religious expression. Right? What's in what's out. That's a very important part. Even if your pan theist in nature, everything is God. There still are things that are out such as hating people, such as doing violence, those things are considered deviant to the religious expression.
But notice that society has the same operator. We all do these things. We organise land time, climate, Sky, whatever according to these principles. And you're either in or as Heidi Klum says out.
And if you're out we work for that starts with the CUA.
said again, your criminal
criminalization is directly related to religious function.
So we can convince people that their behaviour was evil, wrong against the divine, non sacred profane, we can justify putting them in a concrete hole.
You follow? Now, that's obviously obviously over many years, unfortunately, been racialized.
All sorts of patterns emerge to where criminalization starts to take on new forms, but it's not unusual to society.
It's been there. Even in your own small digital networks, you'll notice you do the same thing. Like the creep or the stalker, or the psycho, or noticed at parties. I've talked about parties a lot. And some other classes, notice of parties, the same pattern happens. If I show up at one of your parties, dress like this by myself without another flock of wolves. You think I am, I'm supposed to be on mind Hunter, right? Like I'm some kind of serial killer, or whatever. And I'm just there for observational behaviour to be a friend and I'm walking around and say, Hey, tell me what's going on. You'd be like, Oh, absolutely your criminalised. There's at least suspicion that you're dangerous, because when we form the social organisations, will will institute a pattern and things are and things are out. Now again, we're not talking about any specific religion. What we're doing is I'm saying this is how I want you to kind of think about religious practice. Think about it as a system as a unit, thinking about how all the little pieces go together. Because one thing over here is connected to one thing over here. All right.
So, Missoni has heard this example before, but I'll use it again. Even if she doesn't agree with it.
One of the best ways if I were to ask you, we were to talk about where do you see? Okay, let me go back. You see the word appears ritual, right? That's easy to associate with religion, right? religions have rituals.
But think about the things I said. It's binding. It's repetitious, it's a habit to use. There's another social phenomenon that we can look at, and see those exact same things. I've used the example of digital networks. But let's turn to Ludvik Einstein, you don't know who he is, but let's turn to him. Vic Einstein was big on describing games. Noticing games have the same operating principles. There are things that are in and out. There are things that unify us. There are things that we have to repeat over and over their uniform.
structures, identification markers. There's relationship to the ground beneath you. And to above you, in games are really good way of thinking about how societies work. Let me show you this.
Has anybody ever even bothered to ask? Why? Why is it that football?
This is how I'm going to show you that networks matter. Okay?
We have these systems and notice that they all tend to have problems with this.
fights and anger, personal file,
improper calm, whatever they call it in indecent exposure. I don't know what they call it. What is it? Is a personal foul is that thing and football? What is it called?
What do you call it? What is it?
Worse than white conduct or whatever. All right, all right, good, Fine, whatever. In soccer, yellow cards, Red Guards, right here. technical fouls, right?
Now, if we were to say anger was an instrumental part of a system. All right, let's say I'm drawing a network or a system, all these things are connected to each other somehow. Right? Just allow that to be a system. That's not you can move this. You're gonna be, you're gonna hurt. Okay. All right.
If all of these things Sorry, I'm so close to all right. That's you two. Are you nervous about that? I recorded it here. Okay. its own recording. If you want to make a statement, now's your chance. Okay. You heard that you're good. He said, You're good.
So if anger is a part of it, if anger is a part of it, no one's ever bothered to ask the geometric question. What do you notice about all three of those sports that they share in common?
They all physical keep going. So we yes
And what do you notice about the ball?
By the way, do you know what the word ball ball comes from the term balling, which means to throw? It's the same word we get for guns ballistics. It's a projectile. Okay?
But what do you notice what else they have in common?
That's true. There's a and there's an out good. What do you notice about the geometric trajectory, the movement? How are they moving?
Correct and they have to cross each other. Right? You can see what that naturally induces this
because you're the game is designed for you to run into each other.
Correct. Why? What is it beneath them?
Yes, but how's it formed?
Has a land beneath all of them form the basketball, soccer and football. They are the same shape.
They're all rectangles.
One moves from here to here. And you're confined to a narrow tunnel and you
have to cross each other, which naturally
breeds that baseball is a piece of a circle.
Very different. The hostilities that occur usually only right here, right? In a rectangular form, you see, or No? Okay.
Now, point is I'm not trying to draw attention to sports but I'm what I'm saying is the relationship between anger has something has something to do with another part of the network.
And so to understand the network as a whole, we got to put all these pieces together. It's not enough to just say we need to get people stop being mad. Well, the problem is, the game is designed to make you mad. It's always going to be there. If you change the shape, however, that might be different. Here's another example. We'll go back to football. What's the big concern in football right now? Right head trauma, CTE. What part of the what other part of the network is related to CTE? Why are we always going to have
Problem with head trauma
until we change this other part of the network, once you see that the network is connected, what is what are you wearing?
A helmet. So football is come and say we need to fix the helmet. What happens when you make the helmet safer? What?
True, but it also makes you more risky.
As the safety measures go up, you get to risk more. I'll jump off of a bridge because I have a harness that a parachute maybe not.
Right? So as the safety equipment rises, so does the risk. But what if you wanted to take down CTE once and for all? You would have to lower the quality of the helmet so that people would be more nervous. Well, why did we not see CTE in the early stages of football? What did the helmet not have?
this is just so that's on record didn't have shit in it. It got it. Okay, that's true. It's missing.
Something important, what did you say? Okay, go further. There it is, who in the right mind is going to head first into the pile without a face mask.
So, all of a sudden, you've got a problem here. Once the introduction of the face mask, you've already started the network moving towards adopting a new problem of CTE.
Right, those guys aren't running at the same speed, which is another part of the network. They are but with the, with rugby, they're notice that they move laterally. They move this way. They're not just going this way. And you don't leap from your feet. You don't have padding here. Right? So you do hit heads, but not at the same speed and trajectory. So you met I think you're making the point very well, which is the network. Things that are in the network depend on other things in the network. Does that make sense? Same for religious expression. You can't take something that exists in the network we call Hinduism and cross
supply it over here to the network you call Christianity. Sometimes those networks are just two different operational systems. Are you following so far? All right, I'm gonna make one or two more quick points. And this is one of my favourites. So I told you, right that not only do I want you to de mythologized religion, look at it systemically I wanted you to, let's say spiritual eyes or make religious, the social. This is everything you've seen so far repetition binding, you'll see it on Saturday, and it's already started.
You'll see this
you know what this is, don't you?
Right, this is Neyland.
And you'll see the rituals, right? You will see that we must perform a grand ceremony weekly, where the authority of our institution rivals the authority of another in a world
Like manner. And if you don't think that that's true, I beg you to consider all the religious things we've talked about this far. One of them being conquering, the men get off of the bus, the vol walk, just like they're leaving their hut where they put their armour on. And they march through a parade of women and children celebrating them as they go to war. If you've seen Lord of the Rings, you know exactly what I'm talking about. And what goes in front of them nothing other than a revolutionary band, who
did it into the den. The band is always a warning for the army that's coming behind it. If you've ever watched Scottish marching like this, you got the bagpipes right behind it, it's because the soldiers are coming with it. And we just take that exact same religious phenomenon. And there it is. This has become a religious right, it is a ritual and they march into the field and then what do we do? Do we ever participate in prayers that we recycle? You bet we do. They sound like this VOL. We know what a spell
That's not the point. The point is that we must repeat the ritual. We must repeat the ritual. And anybody who abstains from the ritual is God forsaken. And we nationalise the ritual, not only the ritual of Knoxville, but if we have an F 16 flow over this joker, now all of a sudden, it is a nationalised ritual, and it's Authorised by the great gods of our past our forefathers, and if you don't stand up and you kneel, you are doing something non sacred. That's how we treat it. We sacrifice it. And in the ancient world,
there's an old mine and it might be an Incan game. I can't remember I need to look this up. There's an old game of handball, where like these, these mind, fellows are throwing this ball around and around them are totem poles, okay.
And these totem poles have have guards on the top of their mouth are open, and ideas with the game to film the ball around the we're trying to throw it inside the mouth of the deity. Okay? And you know, it's this kind of
I guess a foreshadowing of soccer or something like that, but what's the game supposed to symbolise? The gods are competing for the universe. In religious expression, we have multiple Gods those Gods all jockey for power over the earth. So what's that ball supposed to be?
It's the earth bouncing around between the gods like it's in a planet moving around in the sky. And the idea was, it was ritualised. You go to the Olympics, it's ritualised, the gods are on Mount Olympus, watching the races and finding out which human had earns their favour. But we've gone from the gods sitting up in the clouds watching this to other gods, they just sit behind this glass where you can't see them.
They're super wealthy. And they and it's also because they own these people are they're part of these groups, their signs all around the top of the stadium watching the performance below, seeking the approval of the God above always wanting to be immortalised.
Reason Hercules was unique was because Hercules was a demigod. His behaviours put him to the point where the gods approved with him gave him godlike status. And that's exactly what we do to athletes. They're not immortalised in the ritual. They're moralised in the record, their statistic
100 Touch He's amazing. He to achieve herculean status. The point that I want you to see is this. This is a religious practice but you've never treated it that way. But you at the same time always have a never knew you did. It's not me saying it's bad or that you need to betray your religion although I do. I won't refuse. I show up in a red shirt people like what the hell you
know burn in hell, I got it.
It's really extraordinary. So this is this is the point and I'll stop with this.
This is powerful, right? these rituals are powerful
and they are have hegemonic control.
hegemony means this. You can't get out of it.
You can't get out. And you consent to it every time. You go to a game. So if you're upset about your religion, sometimes you can't get out of it. Sometimes it's very difficult. Even if you may, you may not want to. That's how they work. We'll talk about more of that on Monday. So y'all
Oh yeah, to Wednesday. Sorry, I forgot this was a
you said that Wednesday.