3:06PM Nov 14, 2019
Set my game down here a little bit. Yeah. Good, good, good.
There we go. Pardon.
already added one this morning. So the Hinduism one is available if you want to jump on it. I'll try to add the Buddhism one this afternoon. So both of those should be there by this weekend. And again, you have until December 7 to finish those. So that's a plenty of time. You just don't want to get yourself in a position where you ignore it completely. And you have that bad dream right before a final where you feel like you've missed a whole bunch of stuff. You don't want that to become a reality. Everybody has that dream at one point in their life. So you probably had it you'll have it again. before too long. I still have it now that I missed some math class. I was supposed to be teaching mine it's converted. It's weird to like wake up in the middle of night thinking I was supposed to be teaching a class and I never showed up for it. So this is really bizarre. So you'll have that dream. But anyway, those quizzes will be available till December 7. Like I said, Hinduism is there. Buddhism should be there this afternoon, if not there this afternoon tomorrow morning, so they'll be there by this weekend. I've adjusted the grading modules a little bit, you pointed out that there were percentage markings on there, I took those off so that there be less confusion. There's only about eight items, those six quizzes presence, and then the final and then plus the exploratory essay section that you already gave to me. But if you'll look at the points there, you'll see that 1000 are still available. So all that's implied Any questions about that kind of stuff before I press on? Okay, so let's talk about the complexity of Christianity have our most the most you have exposure to Christianity at some at some level? I mean, is anybody here completely not from this area? Well, okay, so you're a West Coast, but you and yourself have Christian experience, obviously. Right? Okay. So most of you have are united states people and if you're an i United States person at some level, even if you are just visiting, but you've been here long enough, you have some exposure to Christianity's influence. And that was one of the reasons that I pointed that out. This last session on Tuesday when we read max Weber's to point out how Christian ideals and certain belief systems have structured our economic approach, right to show you that these are the things that Christianity is influenced in your life are not just things like specific teachings, but just sort of the infrastructure, your social experience has been structured by and large part. The difficult thing about talking about Christianity is that in this part of the world, more people are either practitioners of Christianity, or they're over exposed to it. So if I was teaching the same class, but I was in Yemen, I would have that problem when it comes to Islam. Right? Or if I were in Southeast Asia and have that problem when it comes to Buddhism and other things like that. So Christian is difficult because most people arrive with a certain perspective, either because it's their tradition, or because they've been jilted by it right or frustrated by it. So I'm going to try to treat Christianity the same way I have with other traditions, and look at it as a system and look at how it grows out of the Judaic heritage. So I'm going to spend the first part of class Trying to give you a framework of how Christianity sort of sets itself inside that Judaic tradition. Is that makes sense so far? Okay, so some of the things I say may be at odds with what your experience with Christianity is. And that's okay. Like, like I said, I can't say everything when I say anything. Because if I tried to say everything when I said anything, I never say anything at all, because I'll be saying everything else. Yeah. I can't say everything when I say anything. Because if I try to say everything when I say anything, and never say anything at all, because I'd be busy saying everything else, but people don't need anything and every new thing they need something. So the question is, what something should we talk about? And I think this is the something right?
Yes, I've said that many times before. Okay, so let's jump in here. And look at these are the things I want to cover over the next couple of days together. But today, let's talk particularly about the Judaic history, and then we'll dabble in these two elements very briefly. The first thing I have up here, this map is not for you to memorize, but it's in order for me to explain kind of how Christianity fits within In the Judaic tradition, one of the dangers for me of putting Judaism way back several weeks ago is that now your brain has lost grip on some of those details that in order to link them to Christianity, the reason I put Judaism way back there is because we were talking about in ancient religious traditions like Egypt and Mesopotamian, and Judaism grows up in that world. So it seemed more appropriate to talk about Judaism at that point, as opposed to talking about Christianity at this point, or escape connecting it to Christianity at this point. So I'm going to try to retrieve some of those ideas, bring them back forward and see if I can paint a picture of Christianity. There are two huge influences on what you consider to be the Christian tradition. Okay, they are the Judaic in the Greek. Okay, and I'm going to see if I can frame those two things for you just a little bit, and help make sense of some of the things that you've heard in your childhood. I'm not going to assume that you are involved in this tradition at all, but I'm going to speak as if you grew up in a world where this tradition was present. Does that make sense? Okay, so the first thing I want to do is I want to show you that there are two elements here space and time see this line? I'm going to treat it like a timeline. Okay? I want to try to map the fact that the deepest Judaic traditions are very historical in nature. One of the things I said about Judaism several weeks ago was its view of time was different than some of the other traditions we'd seen. Or we were growing used to seeing religious traditions that viewed time cyclical, like this. Sun rises and falls, seasons rotate, its beginning and end. We even saw that with this kind of thing, right? So you have this notion that time is cyclical, when you get to the Judaic tradition, you get a little bit more of a historical approach to time which is more linear nature, this thing is going to breed this thing which is going to breed this thing, which could achieve a perfect end down here. So but I got that. So the the Jewish approach to time is a little bit different and that influences where Christianity fits in there. Because essentially what Christine is going to do is it's going In a position itself, somewhere in here, okay? And in so doing, it's going to revise this stuff backwards. In the same way that Buddhism grows out of Hinduism and revises some of its key concepts, Christianity will do the same to Judaism. And that's critical to understand. So what's the Judaic story? In a nutshell? It starts here, cosmically right. What is it cosmogony? Yes, the way the world is made here, we've traditionally called that creation, right? And so the world is created here. And what's important in the Judaic story is this world is created as a kind of paradise. Okay, so this paradise is valuable, but something bad happens, and the people get tossed out of that paradise. Does that make sense? So far? All right. So I'm going to put that see somewhere in here. Okay. In the Jewish mindset, this is space and time, right? It's not just something that happened in the past. It's something That happens somewhere. Okay. And that somewhere we don't know where that somewhere is but in the Jewish mindset happens somewhere in this region, those people are kicked out and they go east. Okay? They're exiled. Just making sense so far. Everybody with me? Okay, this is the old Judaic stories, their exile they go to the east, why the east, not the West.
What do you what can you tell about the climate here?
What's the difference in this part of the land versus this part of you know, where this is that in the world
create Greece, Turkey,
Africa. Right. This is the Mediterranean Sea. This is down here is the Persian Gulf. This would be Kuwait. This would be Saudi Arabia. Okay. So going this direction is going towards the desert going that direction is going towards the the water which is more plentiful, agriculturally. Right So you go this way your exile, okay? So what happens is a man comes from here. A man comes from here, right? And he is supposed to go back here. Everybody good. Because the thought is, if you've been kicked out, you need to return home, you need to go back to where your land is, and you need to go back to where paradise can be everybody good. Okay, so he's supposed to go back home. In the process, he ends up having bunches of kids and so forth and they encounter a problem that counter that problem is agricultural. They don't have any food, right? And if you don't have any food, you can't have a political presence. You have to think of this as politics. Okay? You can't have a political kingdom. If you don't have food and you don't have enough people. Everybody give it that so far.
All right. So his family ends up here.
What is this?
Right so For our sake, right? They end up in this area, right? And over time, the relationship between will call these people Hebrews, the relationship with that country becomes tenuous and difficult, right? Because they want to establish their own presence and they're growing. In terms of numbers. They are illegal immigrants, right? And in this case, these immigrants are treated as slave labor. They're converted into slave labor. They build stuff for this empire. They don't like their living conditions. And so they asked to leave in the process of leaving, then they go right here across a little body of water. At least this is how the story goes. Does anybody know what this water is? Right? This is called the Red Sea. And we don't really know from the text, whether it means Red Sea or sea of reads, but it doesn't matter. The point is, they're supposed to cross a body of water and when they do something miraculous happens. Right, the waters Park they walk across, and then when they get over this part, they go up a mountain. One of them goes up a mountain comes back down. And when he comes back down, he brings with him the wood. Right, the 10 commandments, what you see here is you're seeing a process, you're seeing a process of liberation through a miraculous Act and the establishment of a constitution. What these people have at this point is their freedom. They have their code of conduct, but what they don't have is what that's true, which means what there's a key word I'm looking for social L. Yeah, land, they need their land. So they want to go back to their land. So they loop around this direction, and they eventually cross another body of water into this land and they secure themselves in that area. They give birth to some several generations and eventually those generations build a capital city, their Washington Monument, their White House, and that is called The what? The temple that is supposed to be the palace for their king, both kings, their divine King and their human King. They build it They fortify themselves but in reality, they're not a major political player in this area. Instead, other kingdoms start growing around them. By the way, you never want to abbreviate a Syria in a classroom of high school students. It's terrible. And you have another one here, Babylon, which starts growing, you have these two kingdoms that are way more powerful way more significant, and they start putting political pressure. You have three kingdoms here, three gigantic political powers, Egypt, Syria and Babylon all putting pressure on this region because it's closest to the water. Do you see that? And it creates highways between them. It's kind of a Nexus, they start putting pressure on them. And at some point, something important happens these people lose their land, the north part they lose to them. These people come in and take them out. And this period of time is called the exile. Okay, now let me show you on the map down here on the timeline. Creation happens then they get kicked out. They try to come back to their land, they get to their land, they eventually build their palace here. Here is the Egyptian story here, they build their palace and then all of a sudden boom, something major happens and we call this period a period of exile. Okay, so this is their story in time and this is their story in space everybody good with us so far? Okay, this sounds like I'm what I'm doing is I'm want to show you what I'm a grown up red marker in a minute and show you how Christianity layers itself right on top of this same narrative. Okay. And that way you can understand a little bit more about why Christianity holds its positions what it does and then why some of its Greek ideas look so different than this alright. So this is what happens. So they get exiled right. And they are in a foreign land they live here. Okay. And during this time, all they want to do is go were home. Eventually a mega power comes in. Persia takes over both of these. Got it. They say, go home, we don't care. So they start going back home. And they live here. But when they go home, there's a problem there in their land, but they don't rule it. Right? They get to live there. But it's pretty, it's a Persian territory. It's not theirs. So the question always has been, are they out of exile or not? Well, in classic, our question riddle game fashion, yes and no, define what you mean by in or out. Right. And so they live in their own land. A vision of eventually Persia gives way to another great government who comes in and sweeps through and takes them over. And that government comes from here. Does anybody know what the name of that government is? Or what the name of that political power is? Yeah, so we're talking about who? Right so we're talking about Alexander. So who's not technically a Greek, but we'll call it a Greek Empire, takes them over and then eventually
so all this time these people are living in their own land but they're being tossed from one one rulership to another. You got it so far. And that's all happening on this timeline and this little window we would call exile. I want you to think of it like this if if an American people have you all seen man in the high castle, anybody seen the high castle you the only one that seen that you'll only normal human being in the room? Okay, so if you haven't seen man high castle, check it out on Amazon. It's Philip K. Dick, who was a great sci fi writer. He did Electric Dreams on Amazon. Did anybody watch the electric dream series on Amazon? You're abnormal people. I'm sorry. You don't aren't cultured. You're too busy watching that show with William H. Macy, where the family falls apart. And they're all like, dysfunctional. What's that? What's that? shameless? Yeah, that's like everybody wants to watch families destruct I'm like, watch something interesting. Anyway. So in the reason I mentioned it is because in the show, man in the high castle, it's an alternate history. It's an alternate history where the Americans did not win in World War Two. And and the entire of the United States is divided in half the East Coast is German. And the West Coast is Japanese. And so the Americans all still live here, but they live under foreign rule. And it's fascinating. It's great show. But imagine something like that were the case. Imagine that Russian invasion was not just in the democracy or in election, democratic politics. But you know, Russia takes over America and says, they move us out. They deport everybody, and then they decide, you know what, you can go back and occupy Tennessee again. But in reality, they're going to say things like, you can't make hamburgers, and you can't sing happy birthday. And you sure as hell can't raise the American flag, right? Because those were all the acts of rebellion and treason. But otherwise, it's fine. You can go to your shopping malls. We don't care if you buy American Eagle because we're going to get a cut, right? So they're going to let you do the things that feel like America at some level, but not those political acts. That's the situation these people are in their industry. where they live in their own land, but they can't fully perform their ceremonies and duties. And so the question is, do they maintain their own religious, their own religious identity? Well, something happens during the Greek period, a group of a family will do a little icon of a family here, decides they want to press back against the occupation, and they want to revolt. Right? And they say screw this not that's not the literal Greek. That's just my translation. Screw this. We don't want people telling us what we can and can't do in our temple. We don't want foreign gods in our temple. We're going to fight back This family is called the has many ends, okay. It has many in dynasty is what it would end up being called, what it was basically a group of brothers and their dad and one of the particular brothers was a great warrior, right. And his name was Judas mockup. They called him Judas Maccabees. Maccabees is not his last name. Maccabees means the hammer. So Judas the hammer, leads his brothers in revolt, and they push the Greeks back and they win. Right? By the way, does anybody know what What that events is what? We talked about this before already. Right? Right. It's Hanukkah, Hanukkah celebrates that liberation. Okay? So but what ends up happening is the Greeks push back harder, they get support from Egypt, they get support from other countries, then they start pushing back a little harder and they are successful, and they suppress the rebellion. A little bit later, during the Roman period, some Jews try to set revolt again, and they get pushed back even further. So essentially, here's what they say. They make an agreement like, Look, we can't do this anymore. They're waiting this whole time during this excellent period when they're under the rule of other people. They're waiting for what we would call mushy, och, or Messiah. Messiah does not mean somebody who jumped out of the clouds and fell down like a Care Bear. It means some, it means an anointed royal figure who's going to liberate them politically. Okay. And if you're thinking ahead, for those of you who are familiar with Christian traditions, you can can envision the people who follow the Christ around worrying that people are going to come get him and raising their swords to protect them. They think of him as this kind of militaristic figure. Okay, so the missus Messiah is supposed to come. But they're nervous that if they announced this, they're going to get in a heap of shit, right? Because they're going to get suppressed. If this happens, and they show their face and they show a rebellion, they're going to get pushed back. So they make this agreement with the Roman occupation that will do what you guys say we have to do. We just want to just let us do our thing. We won't fight back, none of that kind of stuff. What I want you to understand is Christianity enters this conversation right here. So Christianity picks up this narrative and says, there's this man who's born here, who's born in this area, and he is going to be the Messiah. He's going to be the anointed one. He is going to be deliberate.
And it creates a tremendous amount of confusion for the people who follow him because of the things that he's doing. At least these are how the stories go. This is what's in the text. Remember we talked about in the Pali Canon, about the Buddha, there's all these great mythical stories about the Buddha, we can't really tell what's historical and what's not. We have the same situation here. Least is the stories go, it's situated in this, it's layered on top of this story. It's a story about a figure who is supposed to restore this, because the language that figure continues to use is this. The kingdom of God is near. And that is political language. It doesn't mean the apocalypse and locusts are about to eat all of our faces. You know, it's not a Stephen King novel. It's a story about a political revolution. You don't kill somebody or crucify them, because they want you to make sure you don't say shit in the shower, or have moral problems. You crucify someone who will overthrow you politically.
do understand that
or No? Okay, so that's the story here. That's the deep Judaic here. So all the things that we would, that we've grown up with are framed by this narrative are framed by this kind of Central story from the Judaic tradition. And Christina picks that up. Christine picks that up and tries to explain some of this backlog stuff. It tries to explain this stuff through a new model. So the same way the Buddha comes back and says, Hey, karma is a problem. Desire is a problem, the way out of samsara is not through Outman, but not mine. The way out of samsara is to suppress desire. So you get the same thing happening in Christianity, you have, you have Oh, the way to get back to the land is no longer to go on foot, but to create a kingdom of people. So these texts are going to say things like, you are the kingdom, right? So it's revising these concepts. So instead of saying going back to the land, it's a way of revising The idea, Is this making sense to you all or No? Okay, so that's where Christianity fits. It fits in this world of this in the same way. Let me give you a perfect example of how something you might have grown up with might fit into this paradigm. How many of you grew up in the churchy world where you heard things about the armor of God? Right? You have to say like, man, no. Right? So the armor of God is like this helmet and this breastplate Bubble bubble up. All of that language is usually used to tell you to ward off evil spirits in your room and do the right thing with your life. Right? That you need to be unit take on the armor of God and just fight off those main girls who won't let you eat lunch with them. Right? It was always simplified something like that. But that language which comes from Christianity is a reference to language that is here.
And the language there during exile was this great king, who would come in and who would wear this armor, whatever it might look like, right? This King would come in very The sword and he would liberate, you know the people, right. And one of the things that this king wears, if you recall our shoes. And in the text that says the calls these the shoes of the day, my now it's close, uses this word gospel, right? You've heard this word before, which literally is like a kind of a, almost like a portmanteau of Godspell or like a god story or a good news.
So gospel means like a good news.
And so the gospel of peace. So the question is, what in the world does that have to do with this? Well, do you have you ever seen Lord of the Rings? Right? You're not seeing the Lord of the Rings where they're like these mountains, and they like these fires on the mountains and they signal each other. This sound familiar? When the ancient world you have the same thing, right? You have somebody standing up here on watch who's looking down into them, looking down and trying to figure out what's going on down below them, right If they
their tents and things like that are over here. Okay? So their tents over here and they're looking down the valley and if they're in the valley, all these orcs are armies, when they come back down the mountain they bring, they bring a story or bad news, right? There's an army coming, we're about to get into massive fight, you know, etc, etc. Make sure this is recording a little nervous that I didn't hit record. Yeah, we're good. But if there's no army in the valley, then what? They bring what good news of right? That's the idea. The idea is the new that the Christianity uses the phrasing of the gospel of peace is basically say, the king has come there's no enemy. That makes sense. It's a very political conversation. But many of the things that you've grown up with in Christianity don't come from this. Tradition they come from the Greek influences that come after this. Because much like was the case with Buddhism when that figurehead or that leader dies and passes away or is no longer in the picture? The question is, what do we do with the teachings now? And what part of our life do the teachings not address? And how do we develop them? So, so much of what happens? What you know, in Christian history comes well after this narrative, and their major developments in this time period, based on influences from other political sources. Is that making sense to you? Anybody have questions about any of that before I press board? I'm going to race it. Can I raise it? Okay.
Y'all, okay. All right.
Oh, I should say one more thing.
You know, the term prophecy. You're familiar with that term? All right. Are you familiar that term in relationship to religion? Are you familiar with that term in relationship to Christianity particularly? Like, I mean, how many of you had to go to some Wednesday night church with a friend or like, there were 400 sad Monday prophecies. Jesus fulfilled them all come down front.
Anybody had that experience? Okay. All right.
There's a little man Little Red Hats down here. Just give him your money. And now Just kidding. Yeah, yeah. He's an Italian man. And he jumps in hit brick. That's bricks. Have you seen that meme of this person that created this insanely hard Mario level? where it's like, have you all seen you've seen it?
That is the most.
I had so much anxiety. For a minute and a half. That was the most stressful thing I've ever seen. Oh my gosh.
Okay. So anyway.
So it we typically think of the prophetic like this, somebody sitting down here. Looking through a monocle, you know, looking at eggs or energy or something like that on some kind of will do eggs here, split open yolk egg, you know, that's an old light way of defining anyway, feces to. Did you all know this digging through feces? It's called scatter man see? Anyway, so you can do that at home tonight, like dig through a pile of feces and maybe you can figure out what's coming next. Anyway, it's good day to do it's Halloween you can get away with anything. So here's what we typically think is that this person makes some kind of prediction. There's like a mortar shell and it goes
way down here into the future,
right? and everything in between doesn't mean anything. That's typically the way we think of it. But let's imagine, let's imagine that and this is the way in many cases prophetic literature works is that it doesn't work this way. It works this way. Okay, so let me see if I can explain that. If right now you were watching Bernie Sanders given election speech, right or some kind of rally. And he said something like for school for school and two years ago, right? Medicare in this country, you know, right if he's doing that, and you heard Four score two years ago, I mean originally was Four score and seven, I guess, whatever. But you hear that, and you think that sounds like Whoa, it's Lincoln, right? Do we think for one second, that when Lincoln stood up at the Gettysburg Address, he went into some some novelistic trance like this and for for damned Bernie. That's absurd, right? We're sitting here going, that sounds ridiculous. Instead, what Bernie's doing is that Bernie would be aware of the past and he would be adapting it to his presence into His presence so that he would be declaring himself the inheritor of that tradition. Does that make sense? This is the way Christianity uses Judaism. So if, if an old prophet like Isaiah says something like this, but here's a great example. It's perfect. This is coming and Christmas. Remember how I told you that Babylon takes over this area? You remember that? At that time, right before that happens. There's a king in this area. His name's has a chi, okay? And there's a profit that comes to him named Isaiah. And he says, actually, later, it's it ends up being somebody that has a clients after his Chi, I think it's
no, hold on.
starts with a I can't remember I know it's not a half because that's before anyway, it's not important. There's a king, he's talking to the king. He says, look, hey, I promise God's on our side. If you want to win a war, God will give you a sign and a king basically says, No, I don't want to sign because he's afraid if he gets assigned, then he has to obey it. Does that make sense? You don't want the sign. So he says, Okay, fine. You know what, instead of you getting a sign of promise, you'll get a sign of punishment. The same sign will turn it An indicator that you're going to have a downfall. And he says there will be a boy, a boy born in the city of David, and he will be a Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Prince of Peace, ba ba, ba, ba ba. And before he's of blank age, you'll lose a war. Now you've heard that language, haven't you? used to hear that at Christmas every year on a Christmas card? Wonderful God mighty counselor, or Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Prince of Peace. That's political language. Right? A mighty God is a warrior, a Prince of Peace is a ruler, a warrior who comes in and kills all the enemies, right? And so what happens is, Christian writers pick up that theme from here and revise it according to these principles. Now, reason I'm telling you this is so that you can see that you're overexposure to Christianity and probably makes it hard to see some of the Judaic elements. That's why I wanted to start here. Most of what you experienced with Christianity is a Greek influence less than Christian and influence. Does that make sense? Okay, so now that we have this in mind, let's press for Okay, we'll do a couple more things and then we'll we'll get out of here. Anybody else hot or is that just me?
hundred two rats making love and a wool sock.
Yeah. See, you know, this guy knows
he has some some experience with that.
For the record That's Mr. Editors 1030 Strawberry Plains class.
He can be found at Mass General Store downtown on Friday nights. Friday. You work on Friday? I see him right? Oh, no. Okay, so let's just recover a couple things. So, again, one of the things that you're gonna hear in Christianity is there's a sharp distinction between the historical Christ and the what we would know as Christianity. And it's good that we had just had Buddhism because it really helps paint this picture. There's a difference between The Buddha and say Buddhism in a lot of cases, and how that teachers treated so that is the case here as well. One of the in Christianity has some key texts you've grown up knowing or hearing about them and that they are often called the Bible, believe me, and I'll do this in the next room means like book of books or the collection of books. It's not really a sacred term. It's become that way over time. As we talked about symbols the other day with Clifford Gerritsen. It's the same sort of principle. But the stories that contain most of what we know about the life of Jesus of Nazareth comes from the Gospels. The reason I put the term of the Christ up there is because that's a title. It's like the Buddha. Buddha means the awakened one. And so the Christ here means Christos is a word that means the Lord. Okay? And so it's like a curiosity means Lord in Greek. So it's more like saying the president so if you do not already know this Christ is not a certain Name. It's not Jesus's last name. It's a title. So Jesus, so you'll hear people say, Jesus of Nazareth to refer to the historical Jesus. And they'll say, Jesus, the Christ is to refer to a mythical figure. Now, that's a hard thing to understand. Don't think of the word mythical as false or fictitious. Think of it as mythos as the narrative that sort of makes sense of things. And remember that in Buddhism that was disputed to the question is what's the relationship between historical one that we can verify facts about and the one that we know through the stories but the primary stories that we get come from what are called the Gospels now if you think of the word gospel, you should be thinking of good news, and you should be thinking of the term exile. Does that make sense? If you just so you understand this a little more clearly. Let me give you a real fun holiday example. On Christmas, those of you that come from religious traditions, especially Christian traditions, are you familiar with the song Oh, calm. Oh, calm. Emmanuelle how many by show of hands are you have heard the song? Okay, listen to the words, ransom captive Israel. That's exile who mourn in lonely exile here until the Son of God appear. Rejoice, rejoice. It's a story of returning from exile. So in the mindsets of the Christian writers, they are declaring exile over so it's often we lose those Judaic elements because we're, you know, we're singing up on the house top and little baby Jesus. Now everybody gets perfume, especially if it's like Chanel, thank Jesus for Chanel.
I have no opinions on the matter. That's just you know, ad hoc.
You remember the sutras, the sutures were teachings of the Buddha or sayings of the Buddha. In many cases. In Christianity, you have a similar thing you have where these stories are of Jesus of Nazareth life. are broken up between different stories or things he would say versus things that were about him. A lot of times the things that he would say are called parables. And parables are stories or like, little anecdotal things. The word parabolic remember soon balling means thrown together. So parable lane means to put beside so the usually stories that are little over here to the side to create an image or an idea that clarifies something, you do this all the time I do it. When I'm teaching, I'll say let me give you an example. That's like a parable, right? Or I'll construct something. So you do this. When you're trying to explain something to your parents into a friend, you'll step over the side, put the idea out there in a different form, and then come back to the main idea and it helps explicate certain things. You're also going to see inside the stories of the Christ, at least in the texts that are considered Christian scriptures. You're going to see the list language a lot is the language of Kingdom and now that I've painted that Judaic picture, you should understand why that language is there. It's really important Now a lot of times you'll see not you won't see Kingdom of God you'll see Kingdom of Heaven. And that's what we call a circumlocution, okay big fancy word that you can while your friends were with right? circle, like circumference or circumcision means around, right? What does Emma have an idea what location might mean? It does. But the you changes things to locate it speaking. So Eloqua if we say someone's eloquent, right, it's that same LO in there. elocution means to speak carefully or outwardly and so forth. So circumlocution means to talk around something. Right? It's like when you're trying not to say someone's birthday. So you like that special day? Or your moment like you pick these extra words. Because if you say birthday, they're going to find out that you're like planning a party or something, right. You talk around it. A lot of times you'll see the language of Kingdom of Heaven instead of Kingdom of God, because Kingdom of God gets you killed and Kingdom of Heaven, it's likely. Does that make sense? Like you don't say those things out loud in that Roman world because enough people have already gotten killed over it. So it makes sense. And so you know, that's mushy och, or this Anointed One that Jews are waiting for. There's like four or five of them. Right? So there's a lot of them. Judas Maccabees is the Messiah, Ben Siraj, you have all these other figures that are messianic. And so the question when, when this Jesus of Nazareth rolls up is like, okay, what's new? right? Especially if he's not walking around with a sore knees just hanging out with hookers, for lack of a better term. Now, there's a better term I just wanted it to be poignant. Let's be honest, you also see this language. You also see the language of forgiveness heavily heavily saturated in here and which is interesting. The language of forgiveness and love is pretty significant to the Christian tradition, much like holiness, or harmony, or peace might be too far eastern traditions. So these are key terms. And they could have, for a long time created interesting questions for church history, in terms of what do we do with those ideas? And again, these are all terms that are associated with the historical what we as much as what we know about historical Jesus. There was a movement back in the 60s and 70s called the Jesus seminar which was an attempt to figure out what the hit what all the stuff in the in the Christian Bible was, like false or added or whatnot and it's it's darn near impossible to figure out. There's no really way to tell what's what so and one of the reasons is because we don't have we don't have extent texts, you know, what extent means? extent texts and he's like originals
Almost nobody has originals of anything I talked about in tier of auto Buddhism on the lecture that you can listen to later terrified of Buddha Buddhism, it took a while for the monks to start writing down the Buddha's ideas. And so even the Pali Canon and things like that are not things Buddha himself wrote down, by the way, and I think I might have mentioned this, this is why Islam is very unique in that in their minds, their profit, does the writing, not people after the fact? Does that make sense? So in this case, you don't have Jesus of Nazareth, Nazareth sitting down writing stuff, you have his followers writing it down in the in the Muslim imagination, you have the Prophet himself, who's writing this stuff down, therefore, the text becomes extremely sacred. Does that make sense? As opposed to interpreted, there's a lot more severity placed on the text, which is why things like you don't place it on the ground, there's a little stand you put it on, things like that. So these are some of the nuances that you'll see in different religious traditions, but for now, within what we know about historical crises, or keywords apostle just simply means follower right? So much like the Buddha this man starts to collect Jesus of Nazareth start to collect followers starts to collect people who want to join up with him and follow his quote way, in the early stages of what you know Christianity to be. It was primarily called people they were permitted called people the way right, instead of Christian, which is a later term that was adapted. Do you know i don't know if you know this or not, but Christian was a pejorative term. You know what pejorative means? It means like negative or a cut down, right? So just a Christian IN means like little Christ. That's what it means, like a little one. And it was a mock. It was like all
right? The people who little little bit Jesus is running around everywhere. And so there was a mock, it's become the big the moniker that defines what it means to be part of this, but before that it was people who followed the way and this is critical in its early stages. followers of Jesus of Nazareth were assumed to still be Jewish. This was just one Rabbi amongst many, one teacher amongst many. So in their mind, it was a subset or a sect of Judaism. It wasn't until you get further along that people start wondering whether those two things need to be split. And that's what one of the other riders of the Christian Bible is supreme Lee concerned with.
Is this making sense? We'll talk about him.
Early on, they were considered a subset of Judaism. There was no such thing as Christianity is this these these people that follow this Rabbi were just kind of it was more like a denomination of Judaism. It was just a branch a way of doing it. And it wasn't until later that it became fractured. So here's the other element of Christianity. So we have two big pieces. We have this historical Jesus of Nazareth and the stories and then we have the following after that, and the following after that has been called the church, the term for church in Greek is XAC. Now this is important, because at the stage of the church starts to develop is when you start to see Greek influences. In fact, the term XACI. Have you heard that before in your churchy worlds? Anybody ever heard that? You have. Okay, so Ecclesiastes was literally like a Greek political club. So think of the Masons, you know, what masons are, are Shriners hats, little groups, little fraternities. In Greek society, you could have these little fraternities or group organizations, they were called XAC. They were the small little pockets that could have could socialize and assemble. And Christianity took that term as the marketing term for their little organizations. So in the same way that the Buddhists had the song guys are these little fraternities of monks are these followers, Christianity had churches, and the question was, who was goes in the street? Churches and What's it for? And what's its response? XICUEKKLESIA you'll misspell it in Greek. Okay.
I actually don't know the spelling is probably
is a look very similar.
But I think it'll have this I think
closer to that this would be this.
No, but but I like your imagination. It's I'm pretty confident that you are the reason for the costume party now,
after that comment. I'm Steve.
And I'm touching you a lot. you okay with that? Okay, good. It's on the mic. You want to say that a little louder. You're good. Thank you. So the church is a is an interesting novel development. The particular character that's associated with the church is Paul of Tarsus, some people might call them St. Paul. But Paul of Tarsus is a particular follower of Jesus of Nazareth, but never meets Jesus of Nazareth. He calls himself an apostle. But he claims that he needs Jesus of Nazareth in a miraculous vision or experience. But he was not one of those people who follow Jesus around while he's walking around doing his thing. A lot of people scholars are going to say there's a sharp divide between what Jesus wants and what Paul wants, and that Paul's a great system advisor, however you want to take that inspired with me. What you need to understand, though, is that there is a significant change. And what Paul does is Paul attempts in the second half of the Christian Bible, or what you would call the New Testament, in the second half of it tries to explain all this stuff that happens in the first part. So in the first part, you have the stories about this Jesus figure, and then now we got to figure out now that he's gone, how do we explain what he meant, and that basically is the rest of the story. So here in what you would know as the Christian Bible has the Hebrew canon at the front, right? Well, you have called the oldest Mobile is called the Hebrew Bible. And then you have the introduction of this good news about the king goes calm. And then you have mostly letters. After that, two places two churches trying to explain how to adapt the teachings of that figure to these environments. Does that make sense? All right. And so that's what this character does. You start to see words like redemption, which is a dominant phrasing, especially in Christian circles. The idea is that there has been a brokenness or a departure, and now you can be restored from that. But if you think you directly, remember, people get kicked out of the garden, and they come back home. They get kicked out by Babylon, they come back home, you follow. And so, this Paul fellow takes those ideas and now they become more psychoanalytical, you have departed from holiness and now you can come back do you see the transformation? So instead of it being about land, it's more about one's being one's soul. So it transforms and revises older models or older thoughts and so forth. Also during this time, Ellis at least this is after after Paul, and I'm falling chronologically here okay? But after this you see the emergence of what is considered the Christian canon. And you know what the term canon means and don't think boom boom Civil War. Anybody have an idea? Huh? Yes, it means them Sorry, I was swallowing so it means I swear if I do anything moral Mr. Clemens gonna get me he's gonna want me for a ride like I'm sorry. I'm still worried about the Wizard of Oz thing. I went home went to my wife. So I like canon, right canon means like measurement or rule. For example, right now with them. MC you the Marvel Cinematic Universe, there's conversation about, you know, what is Canon and what's not. If some company buys the rights to the Spider Man story, and they want they make this cartoon that was on Netflix, they're going to be a lot of Marvel purists that are going to say is not canon. That's just some thing Netflix needed to do. That's not going to be part of the chief narrative. It's always question, if you want a great example of how difficult it is to define which texts are which comic books are a perfect example, because there are about eight different origin stories for the same character based on publication date, and based on who was the artist and who was the illustrator and what the Maddox they were drawing on. And this is a lot like that. There are a ton of stories circulating at the time. The question is which ones are considered canonical or not. And eventually, they have to make decisions on which texts are in and which texts are out. One of the ways they do that is there's an emergent idea that becomes important for early Christianity and it's this idea of the log off, okay. And that doesn't say logos is log off. It's a word which essentially means rationale principle or idea. It can mean a ton of stuff. But
it means it means like the organizing principle lot like the way I've been using the word mythos. And the idea is that there is an inner truth or there is an inner stability to stuff. And a lot of that comes from the Greek influences around them. Okay. So even though Romans takeover Greeks are still doing Greek life, it's still Greek philosophy is still sort of Greek thinking. And Christianity starts develop this notion that Jesus is the log OSS, the interior principle, or the interior idea that holds things together. And so if we're going to decide what the Canon is, we need to find if it is consistent with the laws, are you all familiar with the book called the gospel according to john. Okay, anybody heard of that? Okay. In the beginning of that book, this is the language in the beginning was the Word. and the Word was with God. That word for word, I suppose weird is loss. Okay? It's a Greek term use there. Here's the idea is that I want you to see that the church is starting try to figure out who it is, and it's trying to use these principles. The same way Buddhist monks are trying to have these councils and figure out what exactly do we think the Buddha said? They start to develop things like Creed's creeds become products of councils, let's get together and say what is it that we think is the central teaching of Jesus of Nazareth? And what a couple of those central teachings are these two things? One is called the Trinity. And one is I'm going to refer to as the hydrostatic union. I know that's another really confusing term. Trinity means three and 113. You've heard this before surely somewhere along the way, somebody has grabbed a clover and said Something like this or if you've grown up around Christian, you've heard this term and it just simply means that there are three divine presences in one. And typically that means it's used familiar language Father, Son, and then one called spirit. The hydrostatic union. This is true, by the way, the term Trinity does not exist in the Christian scriptures. It's not there. This is a product of church reflection. The hydrostatic union is another one here was the basic conundrum they were trying to figure out, Okay, if Jesus we think Jesus came from God, and God can't be contaminated by our finite world, and God is perfect, then what in the world? Is Jesus part of the god stuff or is the part of the human stuff? They're trying to figure out? What do we do with this character? And so they resolve this in a creek called the Caledonian formulation where they say he's fully God and fully man, which sounds inconceivable, but that's the position that the church takes these are both very complex philosophical positions and they have been debated for a long time. But what I want you to see here is the church is trying to grapple with the loss of their leader the same way Buddhist councils were doing that. Another idea starts to develop jump in means like, fully God, fully Man, these two states of being are joined together. Yeah, they're unify hyper status means stands underneath that the unity of divinity and humanity stands underneath. That make sense? Okay. Y'all see, see the development of this term? I'm sure your granny has used this one for you at one time or another. Sanders saying that's a fun one, right? And it simply means like error or errant or missing, or it's actually a term that was used for like, what's the term bow and arrow archery, right, a being able to air from things and it's a term that uses that as different ELOP to describe that departure, you've departed from holy deaths, you've left the Holy Land. That's because of sin. And sin is an elusive category. And it's used a lot of times in Christian circles to catch a lot of behaviors and to describe a lot of behaviors. But it's not monolithic. And it's not doesn't need to be. You also see the emergence of this term, salvation. And this can mean a ton of things. You do see this idea in the Christian Bible as well. The question is always what is it mean? Does it mean saved from people who are about to cut my head off? Or does it mean saved from damnation? So you're starting to see a shift in the way Christianity thinks about space and time, less about land, less about kingdoms, less about warriors. I know it's burning hot. We're close. Let me put a last couple of things on there. This term you also start to see emerged in the tradition of the church and the term is eschatology. The word eschatology, Greek means the end. The last things and again, you start to see questions about what is the end? What's coming at the end, and you start to see speculations about what you have known to the End Times. Right? So this is good for Halloween, or it's good for 2012 Mayan
apocalypse or whatever.
Yep. But the
question is what constitutes the end for the In fact, for the Jewish person, the end is the coming of the Messiah, because it doesn't mean time ends, it means the end of exile. So, it's debated as to what that word kind of means. You see the emergence of these two categories Heaven, Hell, which are heavily influenced by Greeks, because you don't see these terms very much in least in the Judaic literature. There are a lot of different terms for what we you call Hill, and they can be terms like henna, they could be terms like she'll get Hannah, for example is a Greek term that literally means the trash heap outside the city. It literally means like the dump we set on fire in so You can see it's still very political likes, quote, sending someone to Hell is kicking them out of the city, which is very different than lake of fire torment for eternity. Right? And so the your start to see these questions emerge if we're concerned about the end, what are these two dimensions? Is there such a dimension as as heaven is such a dimension as hell? What are they, for example, people in the Greek Orthodox community think having a hell of the same place. It's just if you're pointing one direction, the light of God is warming. And if you're pointing the other direction, it's hot and burning. So it's an interesting concept. These have been debated, but what I'm trying to show you is that these ideas start to merge. And another classic idea that you here is the idea of propagation. And permeation would mean like to purge all this bad stuff is to is an act of cleansing. And yes, that is influenced the traditional Catholic notion of purgatory, but it's also in heavily influenced Protestantism and other things like that in terms of what Protestants would call sanctification or righteous living. It's a kind of cleanliness or confessional things So all you're sitting here is that this stuff is coming from church thinking about the Jesus of Nazareth, as opposed to the stories of Jesus of Nazareth. And so we come back next week we'll talk more critically about what happens then after these ideas start getting put in place, and how does Christianity grow, spread, transform and deform as a result of those sorts of things. So I'm good. Any quick questions?
That's Paul. He uses that language.