3:13PM Nov 14, 2019
Say test test test test test. Okay.
So if you can hear in the background that's belligerent students and won't pay attention to the professor in front of the room because, because they think they're better than me. No, not yet. They think they're better. So they talk to each other and they're on their phones. Have no idea that I'm talking about them because I'm wearing a hoodie instead of a tie.
Okay, let's let's jump in.
I know what should happen. Okay, I'm gonna
I'm gonna jump. I'm going to jump in. We got a little bit of time. I think I can get us where I want to be in 30 minutes. Say that every time sometimes I ramble on, but nevertheless, I think I can close the door on Christianity today. The lectures from the past two in the cycle will be available. Sorry, you're in the splash zone. Do not talk about the splash zone. Okay, so I don't normally come right here. Yeah, so I'm This is
just unique because there's this big empty spot. So I need to fill the void.
So the last two lectures will be available, I have to post them and then this one will be available and then I'll post the Christianity quiz. And it'll be available again through till December 7, and then we'll discuss Islam and the next two weeks, and then that'll be available till December 7. So all that stuff is still still coming down the pike. We are seeing dwindling numbers. That's not surprising. There is no official attendance policy. I think you all probably already knew that. That's the case, I think across the board, hello, sippy. Now some of your professors might give you grief about it. So you can't miss this many times a class. But the standard across, at least when the humanities, at least for philosophy is there's no official attendance policy. So I hope that you continue to participate in classes, we continue to press deeper into November, only because I appreciate the conversations that we can have with one another. All right,
the case, let me jump into Christianity. Are there any quick logistical questions for me before we jump into the lecture, I know it's hard to say but we're going to go with the white screen. Okay, yeah, thank you for telling me I tried to edit that to make sure that everything would do it. But apparently I missed click box. So I'll fix that. Thank you. And if you don't see it, Saturday, midday, text me and I'll jump on my computer and fix it.
Okay. Yep. Okay.
All right. That means so many things now.
Yeah, you know, I saw that in
places and I thought it was this game.
Right. That's what I thought it was the whole time. And then it turns out that it's an defamation thing, anti semitic thing, like a white power thing. Isn't that right?
I saw an article that said this was officially now considered a hate symbol. And I did not know that. Yeah. So it's, it means so many different things.
Yes. It's very fascinating. Yeah.
Apparently, white supremacist use it. A symbol of signaling each other. And I did not know that. It's the okay like, hey, that's all right. And it has Have you not seen this show has something to do with these three fingers. I think it represents a W. But I did not know that. I found this out a couple weeks ago that according to anti defamation groups that it's it's now considered a hate symbol. So that's interesting. Alright, so let's talk about Christianity. In brief we've discussed basically, I'm going to continue to operate on these two main elements and these two main elements for Christianity, arts, Jewish influences, and its Greek influences. And I talked about this on Wednesday I talked about if you're looking at Christianity from this angle, from the Jewish angle, you see certain elements if you're looking at it from the Greek angle, you're seeing other things. We talked a little bit about the distinction between what we would call historical Christ and then the church again, there's no ability any more than there is with Buddhism for us to delineate or to distinguish between the historical figures And the tales about the historical figure but by large, you can sort of assume at least for heuristic purposes, do you know what I mean? When I say for heuristic purposes, that means at least for like teaching value, right? It's like when you might teach a kid and say, Hey, if you elf on the shelf is a heuristic, right to get them to obey its functions as a way of teaching. Okay, so, hell no. God Almighty, if there's anything I hate about surveillance, that's, you remember the panopticon. I talked about the other the tower that looked at all the prisoners, that's elf on the shelf to me, alright. So you can at least I mean, it's hard to delineate between the historical Christ and the church. It's hard to distinguish between the Jewish and Greek influences but futuristic purposes we can i can think that way we can use it as a teaching tool. What are the critical elements for any tradition or the writings themselves and remember, that anytime you have this religious tradition or religious system that has a person at its center, anytime that person is dead center where that person is gone, the writings become increasingly empty. important, because the writing somehow reflect what that figure said. And just as a case with Buddhism, the Christ is not writing anything down. So the people who come after him around him or follow him are the people who are writing these things down. And sometimes we have temporal gaps, right? The same way was the case with the Buddha and terawatt of Buddhism, I was trying to figure out what he said many years ago. I want to talk about a couple of the key things that are the key elements of traditional Christian writings. The first one is the to knock and the to knock is basically what you would consider the Jewish Bible or what you might have heard of growing up as the Old Testament. Does that phrase sound familiar to you? So when I use the term Old Testament, New Testament, you kind of have some familiarity with that, or have some exposure. So this is what you've grown up knowing that to be the Old Testament, this these letters, and I said this to Judaism, but you probably don't remember TNK this is an acronym. And just if you drop the vowels there and it means Torah, Nava MNKVM. So in Hebrew, the This means the law, the prophets and the writings. And so this is considered canonical again. Do you remember what I mean by canonical?
Or canon? Pardon?
Yes. And that's the word I'm looking for. Yes, measure or rule, right. And so we talked about this with the Marvel Cinematic Universe. We said, you know, somebody goes in here and writes a story about Spider Man. The question is, is it part of the Spider Man cannon? Is it not part of the Spider Man cannon? In fact, I've said before comic books are great way to think about can't canonical issues, because there's about eight different origin stories for one character, and there's always this dispute about how they relate to one another. Well, biblical writings or Christian writings had the same question. The same question was, what do we do with multiple origin stories? What do we do with multiple texts that tell the same thing but have nuances and that ends up being critical? Now the knock itself is considered canonical, almost every Christian tradition is going to treat it as canonical, meaning it is part of the narrative So it retains that Jewish element. Now the attitude towards that text is different in different Christian traditions. Does that make sense? Meaning some people when they use the phrase Old Testament, they mean done with some people may ancient and those reflect different kinds of attitudes towards those texts in and I'm doing this chronologically here in between what you know to be the Old Testament period and what you know to be the New Testament period there's a gap. You remember me talking about this with Judaism? You had right here you have the cosmology at the beginning of things. Here you have the Exodus. Here you have the Empire, and then here you have exile. Do you remember this? Does that sound familiar to you all? Yes. Okay. And the deal with exiles there's no land we don't have our home homeland. We don't have control over our political presence in the ancient Near Eastern world. This gap right here represents That Zelig period. During this it's easy for us to think that here's what happens. Oh, there's the to knock and then boom, all of a sudden there's Christian writings, right? Have you heard the term gospels before? So gospel stories good news. We talked about this in a Jewish context. But you've heard of books called like Matthew, Mark, Luke, john, that's just so familiar to some of you if you've been around during Christmas, okay? We think they just plop onto the scene, but they don't. There's a lot of stuff that's written in here. And this is what we would call inter test a mental literature. And by and the other word there is apocrypha. And apocrypha is a term that usually people take to mean fake or false or wrong. It doesn't mean that at all. It just means writings that aren't really that are on the fringes of the canon. Some Christian traditions are going to say that the books that are written during that time of the writings that are written during that time are canonical, some people are going to say they're not canonical. If you go to Barnes and Noble, which nobody does anymore. I didn't think there's one not there's still one not suppose it so you can Go to Barnes and Noble and you find an Oxford American Bible in that's in RSV, and you find it in the religion section, you're probably going to find the Apocrypha in it. Because on the scholarly side, like Oxford, American or on the Catholic side, you're going to see more folks have those texts. And even if it might be in a Catholic copy of what you know to be the Christian Bible, it doesn't mean that it's necessarily binding in the same way. So what for example, those books might be things like any of any that we talked about this did me, Tobin Bell, and the dragon, Judith Syriac, all ecclesiastical, all kinds of other books that you've probably never heard of, in in this Judeo Christian part of the world, because they've been sort of ignored. But there are inner testament little texts there. The question always remains what's authoritative and what's not what you're going to find with a history Christian. Just like with the history of Buddhism, and just like with Islam, the major question is going to be what is authoritative? What is binding? You know what I mean by binding? Like, what am I committed to? What am I obeying, which is why we go back to the three terms I gave you the very beginning this class, really, Gary binding, relegate a repetitive habit to use the world I live in. Does that make sense? So those always remain the same questions. So enter testimonial texts are really important. This where we get the Maccabees I told you the story about Judas Maccabi is the resistance of Jews against the Greeks and the you know, Hanukkah all that bit. Maccabees is also an inner testament attacks. Then you see the emergence of stories about this Jesus character. And don't let Dan Brown scare you or anybody else that tells you there other gospels of course there are. There's all kinds of them. The Gospel of Mary Magdalene, the Gospel of Thomas Baba, blah,
blah, blah, they're all over the place. There were a lot of texts written during this, this world, and an attempt to describe this Jesus character. And what happens is that the people who are the followers have to kind of get together and determine or make decisions or figure out which texts should be considered part of the Canon in which aren't. And if you remember last time, I introduced a word, and that word was a law, gos or logos, which is a Greek word for interior rational rationality or principle. So when they're getting together to decide which texts are part of the canon, they're trying to figure out which one share the same ideas. Does that make sense? Which ones have the same internal ideas in them? And so these decisions are made. You also see one of the key parts of the writings are epistolary texts, pistol pistols, just me letters, okay. And most of you who grew up in Christianity, the one name you know, amongst all others is Paul right, because you heard from the visions that God says this, and you heard from Roman God says this, I want you to look at it from a Jewish angle really quickly. Do you remember I'm going to rewind this really just for a second to show you something. Okay? Look right here. Remember this world? Do you remember me telling you that this is like, basically an ancient Near Eastern world? It's about spreading your empire and your kingdom. Right? Does that make sense? Okay, everybody, okay? I can see a lot more of you with less of you in here. So just okay. It stresses me out. Think that y'all are lost on this. Now, everybody good. Okay. All right. Finally, the more I push, the more you respond. Okay. Did we talk about complimentary Gizmo Genesis in here? Tell me about that in a second. That would be for free. That'd be fun. Don't let me forget complimentary Gizmo Genesis. It's easy to remember. Right? Okay. So in this world, basically, here's what you have. The idea is anybody who grew up around Christians ever heard people talk about like, mission right and There's this line in one of the one of the Christian texts. The phrasing is the Christ says to his followers go to Judea and Samaria and all the ends of the earth. Has anybody ever heard that phrasing before? Okay, well, that's a compass. Judy is here, some areas here, the ends of the earth are right in the left. Okay, so it's a compass. Basically, it's, it's a way of saying go to the south, go to North go the east and west. Because if you have imperial ambitions and you want to spread your empire, that means go everywhere. When you introduce this character, Paul, who's doing these writings who writes these letters, think about where he writes these letters to somewhere here, somewhere here, some here. There's if I was way over here, right? Look at what is happening. These are like little military outposts. Does that make sense? So it these letters from the Greek angle what it looks like all these letters are bad. are letters about how to feel better and how to live the inside life of holiness. From the Jewish angle. These letters are letters from their Ambassador or their military envoy or their leader, written to these little outposts. And just like you would just like it, the Queen of England traveled to her colonies in order to check on her colonies and make sure everything is functioning properly. This Ambassador Paul visit these places, and they house him for a little while to make sure everything is stable. Does that make sense? So at some level, don't just think of the epistles in the Christian tradition as just things that say, Hey, how's it going? I miss you. They also have a particular function. That makes sense. Okay, so you also see the emergence of another kind of text which is apocalyptic and it's not uniquely Christian. This is in multiple places, but apocalypse does not mean he does not mean locusts and dragons. It means like a revelation or a new beginning. Okay? So it's a transformation. And the question is which angle do we look at it with? Okay? So if you look at it from a Greek angle, this apocalyptic thing looks one way if you look at it from a Jewish angle, it's another did we talk about? Okay, I'm going to show you another tree. Okay, so hang with me. I'm gonna go back. Ready? It's about your Yes. Okay. All right. Can you I mean, I know it's hard to see this because the light but Can you all see that generally? Okay, you know where we're at in the world, right? Africa, Palestine, Turkey. Greece, okay.
Right here to the eastern side of Palestine. There's a river, okay, and there's a little body of water there. And there's a body of water right here. This body water is called the Sea of Galilee. This body of water is called the Dead Sea. Okay, there's a mountain range that runs right here, runs down in this area called the trans Jordanian mountains. They run about here and they run down like this are two really important cities. There's one city right here on that side of the water and one city right here, when the Hebrews are traveling this direction and they're looping through here they go across here. This city is called Jericho. Nobody heard of that. Okay, so it's a military entry point into the land. Does that make sense? You see why have to go that direction. Now remember later on in the Hebrews life, there are two big national powers that emerged on the scene. Babylon and Assyria Follow me on this. These people right here are nervous that the Assyrians are going to come in and take them over it the Assyrians are going to come take them over they have to go through you see what they have to go through this city. Does that make sense to you all to military strategy right? So anyone know the name of that city? Did we in this class? Oh, so we've already talked about this Armageddon. Ok. Ok. I can remember that was in this class was another okay. So there's another example of Apocalypse right in the mindset of a positive lips The question is this called Harmon Gita or the mountain a mosquito? The reason I'm bringing this up is because in the mindset from the Jewish angle apocalypse is something that's happening very much in real time in real space. Right? It's something that is it's dangerous. It's happening. So from are far removed historical framework, we might look at apocalypse a little bit differently. We talked about the fact that you have Has anybody ever ever heard of this book, The revelation, according to St. JOHN, it's a that's a Christian scripture. In the story, there's a famous thing you probably all have heard about this, because even if you have nothing to do with Christianity, you've watched a horror movie about some priest who finds a demon, right? And you worried about 666 like it like burns on their arm or something like that. Which by the way, the exorcist is a phenomenal film. You should watch it. It's insanely difficult to see in certain parts, but it is phenomenal. But with that aside, you oftentimes hear about the mark of the beast. Right? It's a bar code. It's RFID chip in your hand, and things like that. And the text that describes this prostitute did not talk about this already all riding on a beast that rises up out of the water and this beast has seven heads. And it sounds totally bizarre. Right? And the good guy comes out and slay this beast. Okay, and you think what Okay, so we should start looking for seven headed beasts, right? If we hear about some like gigantic bass and laugh out loud, we're lucky that is that it right? And we will are speculating about what it's going to be because we don't read it from a Jewish angle and we don't remember anything about circumlocution. So what is circumlocution?
You don't say Kingdom of God you say Kingdom of Heaven. Why?
Correct. So what circumlocution?
Right talking around something so is a beast with seven heads. Rome was known as a city with seven hills. So if you're going to say Rome is a prostitute, writing a beast, and we're going to cut its head off. You don't say that out loud. Does that make sense? So apocalyptic literature is highly symbolic. It's not unusual. And a lot of sacred texts are this way, not just within the Christian tradition, but with all kinds of traditions is the symbolic language is really dense. Definitely is the case with ancient Near Eastern literature, particularly like Egyptian and things like that. So I just want you to remember that when apocalyptic literature shows up, it's not just about the end of the world, it's about a in many cases, something that is occurring there in front of them. The last term I want you to be familiar with is extra canonical, most most Christian sects that CTS not XI don't know what Christian sex is. But Christian sex, on the other hand, is something it would all pretty much hold to these top category. Being canonical the to knock the Gospels, the epistles and apocalyptic literature. There are other Christian traditions and other Christian traditions were were dispute whether there are more materials or not, for example, Latter Day Saints, which you know to be Mormon, right? So the Book of Mormon would be considered by some Christian sects to be extra canonical, but by Latter Day Saints and other folks would be considered canonical. Are you following me? Same with Jehovah's Witness? The the tradition of the Jehovah's Witnesses? It's a it's not an extra book, but it is a very specific translation of traditional Christian scriptures. So extra canonical is a disputed idea like is this in or is this out, and a lot of Christian wrangling with each other is dependent upon whether those texts are canonical or not, and therefore are authoritative. So make sense So if you come from the latter day saints tradition and find that authoritative and binding and canonical, of course, you're going to try to convince other people that it is as well, especially other people in Christian traditions. Alright, so that leads to this question, What What does Christianity look like as it spreads splinters and grows? Basically, what you need to know is that Christianity grows up in Rome. That's its birthplace. That's where it begins. And even though it grows up in Rome, it grows up with Greek thinking. So if I were to say, okay, I've told you that they're Jewish influences a Greek influences, I probably should say there are three. And I should probably say there's a Jewish influence. There's Greek thinking, but then there's Roman infrastructure. The Roman infrastructure heavily influences Christianity, for this reason, one, it gives them an idea of how to govern their people. In fact, early churches that were above ground, were really just legislative buildings that Romans had developed. So imagine there was no such thing as church right now. And all of a sudden this movement started and they started an old Abandoned courthouses were being used as religious sites. That's what basically you have with early churches, early churches are using that structure. And these early churches are actually using ideas of hierarchy, the way Rome would. Well, if Rome has a governor and people and there's somebody above the governor, well, then early church starts thinking that way that we need to have a person in charge here and the person above them, they start to structure themselves that way. And so it's not really the thinking of Rome. It's more of its way of organizing space and time. But also because at some level, there is a belief that Rome is like an origin point, particularly Rome itself has an origin point for Christian growth. Rome also offers one other thing that's really important and that is roads.
Roads, grease, the wheels for Christianity to grow, because it can travel in the same way the internet does that now. The Internet lubricates, really expression rather than stifles it. As Christianity grows up, and it begins in its infancy, and their leader is gone, there's all kinds of different movements of pop up that people like groups are trying to say, is this part of Christianity or not? It's one thing to say, is this writing in or is it not? It's another thing to say is this idea in or not. And one of the ideas that pops up in early Christianity is idea of narcissism, not gnosis. The Greek word gnosis literally means to know something. I mean, it's actually the same word is knowledge. Right? You have we have that silent KR knowledge, you have a silent g here, okay? So gnosis means to know something. The early idea was this. Gnostics started taking this notion from the Greeks. This notion that all this material stuff doesn't matter as much as what I think when we talking about Plato said there's a tree there's a tree, there's a tree, there's a tree, they're all different. What makes them all tree some idea of trickiness. Does that make sense? So gnostic Christianity started to say there Must be a deeper knowledge to all this Jesus stuff. And it was specialized knowledge exclusive, and it repudiated or was disinterested in the material world. So on one hand if you're a gnostic, and you're not interested in the material world, you do you deprive yourself, you don't want to part any part of this. But on the other hand, if you're not sticking, you're not interested in material world and it's not important. It isn't last. You can do whatever the hell you want. Like sprog anybody you're interested in. For those you don't know British slang that means foreign aid. Okay? So, early narcissism creates this question for Christian like, is this what is supposed to be? Is it not what supposed to be that's what early Christians are asking this question and whether it fits or whether it doesn't by and large, by and large. It has been sort of marginalized, but it's resurfaces resurfaced over the last couple of years. Because certain scholars and historians have gone back to gnostic and said Oh, they were unfairly marginalized. We need to hear their story. That's where a lot of those, quote other gospels came from. Were from these, this collection called the Naga Mati texts, but we can talk about that another time. So basically all these councils start having to get together and trying to decide what is Christian teaching. In the same way. There were three Buddhist councils, there are three great Christian councils, and councils are ecumenical. Now this is a fancy word that means what means all together and so humanism is when you're taking all the different branches of a religious expression and bringing them all together. So it can be an account ecumenical councils as a way of saying, hey, look, all of us need to get together and decide this. It would be like saying bipartisan, you've heard that phrase in politics. This is bipartisan acumen ecumenical is bipartisan, and some of the big things they start to develop, or what you know, as historical Christianity, for example, Trinity, for example, hydrostatic union, Jesus fully God fully man, there are three persons in one, etc, etc. And they come up with crazy councils produce those ideas. Now that's overly simplistic, but for the sake of time, we're going to go with it. And of course, if you want to stop and ask about it, you can. Out of these councils you see the development of the idea of Orthodoxy and you see two O's here big one and the little one so let me see if I can explain those very briefly there little Oh, orthodoxy simply means this. ortho says is a Greek word that means correct or right. Okay? And by correct You're right, don't think morally right. It means like angled correctly. an orthogonal line is a line that's like perpendicular, right? Or something. Think of Orthopedic. Pado. The peed suffix means foot, not job, foot. So orthopedic means putting your feet in the right direction. That's why an orthopedist is someone who's helping train someone's body to repair to the right motion. So orthodox Doakes, I means like opinion or belief or can mean worship. It can mean a lot of things. But orthodox would mean like Right, belief or activity or worship or attitude, does this make sense? So these councils produce what would be considered orthodox and when you hear is that an orthodox idea it means is it just doesn't jive with the history. But there ends up being an issue where there's a big orthodox which is more like a Christian branch. I'm going to try to see if I can spin this right over here
is I'm going to do this really quick for the sake of simplicity. Okay, so don't be mad if it doesn't have the same visual clarity as it normally does. Don't forget Denmark. There we go. It's probably too deep of an English channel. But here we go. Alright. So here's Europe. Okay, but get so far. Basically, here's the deal, North Africa. Here's Palestine. Basically, Christianity grows up here. Okay. These cities are important, and these cities are important, as well. Christianity grows, it becomes blended with national political interests. Okay? At one point, the leader of Christianity lives here. At one point, the leader of Christianity lives here, and you start to see a battle of superiority between these two locations. All these councils, they're all coming together to try to decide what's right what they want to do, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah, but there becomes a dispute of authority. Do I listen to you Do you listen to me? And basically it fractures like this, okay? This becomes what we know as the Eastern and this what becomes the western. This becomes what we know to be Catholic. And that word means universal. Okay, so both of the words that these churches operate with means something universal church, you can see how that's a big claim, right? That means like all over the world, this group becomes called calls themselves orthodox. So right belief, universal, you see the authority dispute? Yes. This group blends in with European politics to the point that another group pops up writing this area, there's Germany, and these groups start popping up and asking, wait a second, what's authoritative for us is what's authoritative for us this man who lives here in charge of us like a governor? Or is it the texts of Christianity? It becomes a dispute. The man that lives here that's in charge of Christianity on this side, it's called The what? The Pope, which is just a word that means Papa, it just means dad, just like you hear a priest called Father Brown, right? So the Papa here is in charge. And these people start saying no, I don't want to I don't I don't think that's the way it should work. So they protest.
Right? So they become protest tense.
Protestant, right. So now you have three big movements here, here, here, these still remain the big ones. Eventually, this influences these people. Up here you have the King of England wondering, or queens or anybody wondering, well, who do we side with? Do we side with the protest dance? Or do we saw with the Catholics? You see the problem? Okay? So eventually, Elizabeth, the first people tell you, it's Henry, but it's not. Elizabeth. The first says, Why don't we pick a spot in the middle? And they say, we're going to look Catholic. We're going to think Protestant, and they become what's called the Church of England. Everybody gets so far. Then another group of people pop up and say, we don't like that. We don't want to do it that way. We want to be more pure than all of this Church of England stuff. And the Church of England gets pissed at them and tells them they can't so guess what they do. They jump on ships and guess where they go?
And so then it gets here. We'll just put the magnifying glass here. So get the idea. We'll do a little icon graphic here. There's a magnifying glass
and then they come here
it's a terrible northeast, but you know, who cares? Right? They come here, up, up, up, up, up, up, up, up, and it splinters into another million pieces. What you know to be denominations is this is this stuff. All this stuff starts to splinter. And with all of these, these big circle groups are the smaller ones. any of this. It's always a question of what is binding, what is authoritative? Meanwhile, you should be asking yourself what about on that side of the dotted line? They just sit there and die? No, they spread that way. Then right here, that's Greece. And they go up what's up, Russia. So there's a whole other side and then throw another kink into it down here, these African churches. Anybody ever heard of this? Coptic means Coptic Orthodox. Well, kind of some Ethiopian churches or Egyptian churches from the Christian tradition. And so the Muslim tradition or this so you have this split is pretty big. And it's affected people on this side of the world, because we don't really know much about this version. But what I'm trying to show you here is that this issue Like you see singularity, you see questions are trying to get everything together. We're trying to get together and figure out what it is. And then it just like splinters into a million pieces. There's generally some consensus that it's all together, but it's hard to accomplish the Great Schism is that dotted line splitting between the East and the West. On the west, you start to see the emergence of crusades, which is the attempt of these people to come back and take over the Holy Land. I don't need to belabor that you hear about that in history classes all the time, but you also see the emergence of monasticism. monasticism, if you remember, I talked about this with Buddhism is that it's the attempt to like single out the life and live a sacred life. The monastic movement starts as a result of everybody going you know what I don't like the idea that Christianity so in bed with the political system, and they get nervous about that, so they decide to leave town and go practice their Christian tradition and other places, particularly out in the desert. It's important to understand that the most does not see themselves as a weird person. They think of themselves as military. Anything How? In the mindset of the monk, the thing that's dangerous to the city is a demon. So if I'm going to fight a demon, much like in the old ancient narration, tradition, the wild stuff, the dangerous stuff lives in the desert. So I go live in the desert, and I live out there and I pray out there in hopes that I will do battle with the demon before it gets to the city. Does that make sense? That's the way they think of it. They think of all this civilization and growth is being threatened. So they want to go out to what they think are the front lines of battle, and they think they want to fight their reformation and protest. I've mentioned that reformation just describes this movement right here. Okay. This movement right here is the Reformation and it's it's just another way of saying the Protestant sort of emergence. Now it is interesting if you did not already know this, that you just practice the informational event. Basically, the guy who's in charge of this or starts it is a guy named Martin Luther. Okay, not Martin Luther King, Martin Luther different people. Martin Luther decides that he's going to write a basically a letter outlining why he thinks Catholic Stuff is not working. And he does it right before a special holiday in the Catholic Church that holidays called All Saints Day, where they celebrate all the history of people who have been involved in Christianity. All Saints Day could also be called All Hallows Hello is another word for saying holy, well, All Hallows Eve.
Sounds like what? Halloween so Halloween is a of All Hallows Eve, right, so squishing the term together. So you just kind of were part of that. It doesn't really reference the church directly. There are other Nordic reasons that we worried about ghouls and ghosts, but just to show you that this European tradition has still very much affected our daily lives. I talked about England, how it affects England, I talked about the mission. Mission is a term that's pretty common in most Western Christian traditions. You're not going to see it here as much. These people are not as interested in like spreading it as much as these people some but these people a lot very interested in spreading what might be considered Christian ease to the world, and that evolves as especially as things get to America. Because as you're leaving behind the European structure, you're looking at America as the new opportunity to kind of do your thing and, and so on and so forth. Please don't be mistaken, though. People who come to America don't know. America doesn't start because of religious freedom. America starts because of the Crown's company interests, the crown sins, people here to look for tobacco so they can export it and sell it It just so happens that that promise of the New World is a good thing for people who are frustrated with their current condition or current political conditions. So they jumped ship and they come over here they settled in these mountains because it looks a hell of a lot like England. Right. So there they end up in the in these areas. So it affects who we are. The emergence of denominations denominations does not mean religious tradition, it just means a name. The word denomination just is no min in Latin means name. So a denomination is when you put a title on something. But in religious history, at least in Christian religious history, denominations are the are the term we use to describe those different Christian groupings? And most of you are familiar with those right? You've heard of Baptist, Methodist ba, ba, ba, ba, ba, ba, ba, Presbyterian, Episcopal so on, so and so and so and so on. And so, it Yeah, anyway, that very, very, very well. That's very well known. I just want to explain that that's a part of Christmas sort of changing and transformation. You also see the emergence of a couple of have words here that are not denominations? In large part, you have things that are more like movements. Has anybody ever heard the word charismatic? Okay. charismatic is not really a denomination. It's a movement. evangelical is not a denomination, it's more of a movement. So think about how I'm political discourse. We say, Well, I'm not really Republican or Democrat. I'm more of a social justice person. Right. Social Justice is a movement. both Republicans and Democrats think that they're participating in social justice, but very differently, right. Republican thinks that their participation, social justice by making the economy better and trickle down economics. The democrat thinks they're making such just conditions better by more government programs or better conditions for poor folks. So social justice is not a political party. It's a movement right? Same thing happens inside these religious expressions. Is that evangelical and fundamental our movements more than they are denominations, evangelical Simply is characterized mostly by the term good news you on gave me on in Greek means good news. It's the word we use the Greek word for gospel. And evangelical would describe a group of people that feel like it's their obligation to spread Christianity. Okay? They the the key themes for the evangelical are often a high view of conversion of very high view of Christian writings of very obligatory sense that they're supposed to be doing something in the world that I can't remember the fourth part of the Beddington quadrilateral but those are some of the emphases fundamental on the other hand tells you exactly what it sounds like the fundament the ground, like what's fundamental. So you typically think of the fundamentalist person is the long denim skirt and the long hair, you know, don't want somebody said something here about not wearing jeans, burning jeans. Yeah. So fundamentalists think that what they're doing is they're leaving frogging history and going back to the origins. And so they're going to jump back to texts and say these things are what our scriptures tell us who are supposed to be doing. So we're going to do it that way. And it's a movement, you see it more in these areas than in some other places.
And the last term I want you to be familiar with is the global south, and I'm going to be done after this. A lot of people will tell you Christianity is no more, just like Peter Berger talked about how the ideas of religion is no more. The reality is not so it just has moved. So one of the interesting things that's developed in Christianity over the last 50 years, even maybe 100, is that yes, our European churches are English churches empty you bet they are. But Christianity has moved to the global south rather than the global north and what that means is the equator.
Let me see if I can show you.
Here, I have
Hopefully this makes sense to you all.
That's not that's too close. But that's all right.
Scandinavian countries out there. It's pretty damn good for that quick, right? Alright, so you guys get where we're at, right? Okay, so the global south is this, okay? Historically Christian is here. And here now it's really dominant here in here. Like if you go to Kenya, or Rwanda or Tanzania. It's remarkable how. So you're seeing shifts, but you're also seeing shifts and other things. Islam was really dominant here for a long time, but it's definitely moved these directions right? So you're seeing massive shifts, Southeast Asia, I can't get all the way around the corner here. Buddhism, things like that have moved in different places. So religious practices move and adapt and adjust. And now pretty much Christianity is defined in large part numerically by the global south. One of my friends Kaz lon, was a Rwandan priest, and we're talking he said in my church people, people ask me in America, how do you know if they are how many people are in your church? He would say, and he said, I tell my people, I tell people like you just count the cars. And they were like, what? He said in my church 700 people. One car isn't like, Okay, well, that makes sense. Gotta get American churches. A huge drive by alcohol highway and you drive by that huge one on the left. Yes. And like cars everywhere you go and kind idea how many people are like you're saying with pillow sippy? Oh my gosh, nobody's here. How do you know you drove in the parking line. Other parts of the world. It's just very different. So Christianity, and religion looks different in different places. One of them I want I'm a religious scholar that I read from time to time, once noted that, you know, how many of you grew up with CS Lewis line, the Witch and the Wardrobe? Right? You're familiar with that? At least the movies, right? Chronicles of Narnia, right? The thing is, if that book is written now, in written in the global south, it's a leopard. Because the symbols that we associate with religion are often defined, by the way we think, in basic based on where we live, to an English writer who was a colonial person who went to Africa to hunt wild game, you use a lion, right? But if you grew up here in the jungle, and you're thinking about an animal that's forceful, and be steel, and powerful, you think of a leopard. Right? And so it's just to point out that a lot of the things that we associate with religious practices transform as you move around the globe geopolitically, that makes sense. So we're always trying to ask that same question sort of how the all these elements sort of influence religious thought and religious practice. What's it for? What's it doing? How does it work?
Okay. All right. See you all on Monday.